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Effectiveness of single and combined use of selected dietary probiotic and prebiotics on growth and intestinal conditions of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, Sauvage, 1978) juvenile

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Single or combined effect of yeast, galactooligosaccharide (GOS), mannanoligosaccharide (MOS), and β-glucan was evaluated on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, digestive enzyme activities, intestinal morphology, and microbiota of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) juveniles. Triplicate groups of striped catfish (15.85 ± 0.29 g) were fed twice per day at 3% of body weight for 12 weeks, with 0 (control), 1% yeast, 1% GOS, 0.4% MOS, 0.1% β-glucan, 1% yeast + 1% GOS (YGOS), 1% yeast + 0.4% MOS (YMOS), and 1% yeast + 0.1% β-glucan (YβG). With the exception of 1% yeast, the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, protease activity, and villi length were significantly improved (P < 0.05) in all the supplemented diets over the control fed group. Results also revealed that 1% GOS and YβG significantly improved the final weight and specific growth rate (SGR) over all the remaining treatments. A significant increase in amylase activity was only observed in fish fed with 1% GOS-, YMOS-, and YβG-supplemented diets compared to the control. A total of eleven bacterial phyla were identified from the intestine of striped catfish and Firmicutes was the most dominant phylum found in all the fish fed with supplemented diets. The results suggest that administration of 1% GOS and YβG afforded the best growth performance, nutrient digestibility, digestive enzyme activities, intestinal morphology, and microbiota of striped catfish juveniles.

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Specific growth rate


Yeast + galactooligosaccharide


Yeast + mannanoligosaccharide


Yeast + β-glucan


Weight gain


Protein efficiency ratio


Feed conversion ratio


Hepatosomatic index


Intraperitoneal fat


Viscerosomatic index


Association of Official Analytical Chemists


Apparent protein digestibility


Apparent dry matter digestibility


One-way analysis of variance


Bovine serum albumin


Neutral buffered formalin


Statistical Package for the Social Sciences


Short-chain fatty acids


Carboxymethyl cellulose


Nitrogen-free extract


Gross energy




Villus length


Villus width


Crypt junction


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This study was financially supported by the USM Postgraduate Research Grant Scheme (PRGS).

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Authors and Affiliations



Dr. Amalia Sutriana: experimental design, conducted the experiment, data collection, and analysis, drafted the manuscript.

Dr. Mst. Nahid Akter: helped in conducting the experiment, data collection, and analysis, manuscript editing.

Dr. Roshada Hashim: oversight and leadership responsibility of the research project including research activity planning and execution, mentorship, and manuscript editing.

Dr. Siti Azizah Mohd Nor: PhD co-supervisor, helped in experimental design, data analysis, and manuscript editing.

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Correspondence to Amalia Sutriana.

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The procedures in handling, maintenance, and killing of animals applied in this study complied with the guidelines of the Animal Ethics Committee of Universiti Sains Malaysia.

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Author 1 Amalia Sutriana has received a grant from the Postgraduate Research Grant Scheme (PRGS) in USM. Authors 2, 3, and 4 have contributed to the research and have no financial interest.

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Sutriana, A., Akter, M.N., Hashim, R. et al. Effectiveness of single and combined use of selected dietary probiotic and prebiotics on growth and intestinal conditions of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, Sauvage, 1978) juvenile. Aquacult Int 29, 2769–2791 (2021).

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