Our aim was to verify whether genes in the coagulation complement and cytokine interaction pathways are crucial to the resistance to grass carp hemorrhagic disease in grass carps (Ctenopharyngodon idella). To evaluate this, we acquired male grass carps with grass carp reovirus (GCRV) resistance, F1 generation, ordinary male fish, control F1 progenies (hybridized ordinary fish), and barbel chub (Squaliobarbus curriculus) as a positive control. We compared the expression variation of 13 immune factors in different tissues using real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. Our results showed that the expression of the transforming growth factor-β3, nerve growth factor receptor, coagulation factor D, chemokine receptor XCR1, profibrinolysin, γ-globulin of complement component 1, complement component 2, and complement component 5 in the different tissues of the barbel chub were significantly higher than those in the grass carps populations under normal conditions. Except for a limited number of genes, their expression exhibited significant differences. There was no significant difference in these genes among grass carp populations with different GCRV resistance. These results indicate that the high gene expression in the coagulation complement and cytokine interaction pathways may be the main reason for the strong resistance of barbel chub to GCRV. However, high gene expression was not a factor affecting GCRV resistance between grass carp populations.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Aquaculture Research Group of Jianhu County of Jiangsu Province (1974) Hybrid test report of Ctenopharyngodon idellus (♀) × Erythroculter ilishae Formis (♂). Freshwater Fish 4(3):22–23
Chen Y, Li J, Shen Y (2013) Cloning and expression of C1qC gene in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). J Fish Sci China 20:25–34
Fish and Fisheries Administration of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of the People’s Republic of China, National Aquatic Technology Promotion Terminal of China, Chinese Society of Fisheries (2019) 2019 China Fisheries Statistics Yearbook. Chinese Agriculture Press, Beijing
He M, Xiao T, Liu Q, Li D, Li W, Deng Y (2015) Morphological characteristics andlysis of Ctenopharyngodon idellus, Squaliobarbus curriculus and their reciprocal hybrids F1. J Hunan Univ Arts Sci (Sci Technol) 27(4):36–42
Jalili A, Marquez-Curtis L, Montano J, Shirvaikar N, Ratajczak MZ, Janowska-Wiezorek A et al (2006) A novel role of complement components C1q and C5a in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell migration. Blood 108:4169. https://doi.org/10.1182/blood.V108.11.4169.4169
Jiang H, Liu S, Xiao TY, Cao YK, Xie M, Yin ZF (2019) Cellular biological and eumelanin-related gene expressional bases of pigment deviation of Leptobotia taeniops. Appl Ecol Environ Res 17:12181–12189. https://doi.org/10.15666/aeer/1705_1218112189
Li Y, Mao S (1990) Establishment of grass carp cell line AHZC88 resistant to hemorrhagic disease virus by UV mutagenesis. J Fish China 14(2):89–93
Liao Z, Wan Q, Yuan G, Su J (2019) The systematic identification and mRNA expression profiles post viral and bacterial challenge of complement system in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. Fish Shellfish Immun 86:107–115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2018.11.032
Liang HR, Li YG, Zeng WW, Wang YY, Wang Q, Wu SQ (2014) Pathogenicity and tissue distribution of grass carp reovirus after intraperitoneal administration. Virol J 11:178. https://doi.org/10.1186/1743-422X-11-178
Liu Q, Xiao T, Liu M, Zhou W (2012) Research progress of biology in Squaliobarbus curriculus. Fish Sci 31(11):687–691
Lv LG, Xu Y, Xu BH, Liu QL, Xiao TY, Liu Y, Su H (2020) Molecular mechanism of growth diversity for the first hybrid generation individuals of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) (♀) × barbel chub (Squaliobarbus curriculus) (♂). Appl Ecol Environ Res 18:1151–1159. https://doi.org/10.15666/aeer/1801_11511159
Ni J, Yan Q, Yu Y, Zhang T (2014) Factors influencing the grass carp gut microbiome and its effect on metabolism. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 87:704–714. https://doi.org/10.1111/1574-6941.12256
Ni JJ, Li XJ, Chen F, Wu HH, Xu MY (2018) Community structure and potential nitrogen metabolisms of subtropical aquaculture pond microbiota. Appl Ecol Environ Res 16:7687–7697. https://doi.org/10.15666/aeer/1606_76877697
Peng H, Liu M, Liu Q, Xiao T, Sun J, Xu B, Liu Y (2014) Molecular cloning and tissue expression analysis of Mx gene in Squaliobarbus curriculus. Acta Hydrobiologica Sinica 38:993–1001. https://doi.org/10.7541/2014.147
Scapigliati G, Bird S, Secombes CJ (2000) Invertebrate and fish cytokines. Eur Cytokine Netw 11(3):354–361
Savan R, Sakai M (2006) Genomics of fish cytokines. Comp Biochem Physiol D 1:89–101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbd.2005.08.005
Secombes CJ, Hardie LJ, Daniels G (1996) Cytokines in fish: an update. Fish Shellfish Immun 6:291–304. https://doi.org/10.1006/fsim.1996.0030
Tang X, Fu Y, Zhao Y, Pi J, Wang H (2020) Dietary α-ketoglutarate supplementation alleviates harmful effects of high environmental ammonia on grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. Aquac Res 51:1182–1189. https://doi.org/10.1111/are.14469
Wang H, Ding C, Wang J, Zhao X, Jin S, Liang J, Luo H, Li D, Li R, Li Y, Xiao T (2019) Molecular cloning and expression analysis of coagulation factor VIII and plasminogen involved in immune response to GCRV, and immunity activity comparison of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella with different viral resistance. Fish Shellfish Immun 86:794–804. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2018.12.024
Wang Z, Zhang S, Wang G (2008) Advances on the complement components, characteristic and function of complement system in fish. Acta Hydrobiologica Sinica 32:760–769. https://doi.org/10.3724/SP.J.0000.2008.50760
Xiong L, He L, Luo L, Li Y, Liao L, Huang R, Zhu Z, Wang Y (2018) Global and complement gene-specific DNA methylation in grass carp after grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection. Int J Mol Sci 19:1110. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19041110
Xu B (2012) Comparative transcriptome analysis of spleen of infected grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha
Xu BH, Zhong L, Liu QL, Xiao TY, Su JM, Chen KJ, Wang HQ, Dai YJ, Chen J (2016) Characterization of grass carp spleen transcriptome during GCRV infection. Genet Mol Res 15: gmr.15026650. https://doi.org/10.4238/gmr.15026650
Zeng W, Wang Y, Liang H, Liu C, Song X, Shi C, Wu S, Wang Q (2014) A one-step duplex rRT-PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of grass carp reovirus genotypes I and II. J Virol Methods 210C:32–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2014.08.024
Zhang H, Zhang X, He T, Chen L, Chen T, Xiao T, Li J (1997) Transfer of exogenous DNA into fertilized eggs of grass carp by sperm vector method. J Fish China 21:74–76
Zhang YB, Jiang J, Chen YD, Zhu R, Shi Y, Zhang QY, Gui JF (2007) The innate immune response to grass carp hemorrhagic virus (GCHV) in cultured Carassius auratus blastulae (CAB) cells. Dev Comp Immunol 31:232–243
Zhu Z, Li G, He L, Chen S (1985) Novel gene transfer into the fertilized eggs of gold fish (Carassius auratus. L. 1758). J Appl Ichthyol 1:31–34
The authors thank anonymous technicians at Guangdong Meilikang Bio-Science Ltd., China, for assistance with data re-analysis and figure preparation.
This study was funded by the National Key R & D Program of China (No. 2018YFD0900302).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All experiments were approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee of Hunan Agricultural University (approval number: 2013008) and performed in accordance with approved protocols.
Consent to participate
Consent for publication
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Wang, H., Yang, H., Li, R. et al. Different resistance potential to reovirus in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) populations and their immune characteristics. Aquacult Int 29, 253–260 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10499-020-00623-z
- Virus resistance
- Population variation
- Gene expression
- Grass carp reovirus
- Hemorrhagic disease