Flow, Turbulence and Combustion

, Volume 100, Issue 2, pp 561–591 | Cite as

Bluff-body Thermal Property and Initial State Effects on a Laminar Premixed Flame Anchoring Pattern

  • S. Berger
  • F. Duchaine
  • L. Y. M. Gicquel


Bluff-body stabilized laminar flames remain at the root of many industrial applications. Such a simple flame arrangement although steady results from complex chemical, flow mixing as well as solid body thermal interactions that are still today misunderstood. Numerically, accurate predictions of such non linear problems require Conjugate Heat Transfer (CHT) approaches that are seldom because of the need for complex fluid flow solvers as well as multi-physics coupling strategies that are computationally expensive and difficult to master. Such numerical tools however provide access to fundamental elements otherwise inaccessible. Relying on Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) CHT based predictions, the following work underlines several key features of importance to predict and understand square bluff-body stabilized flames. In the case of fluid only predictions, where the bluff-body wall temperature is fixed and assumed constant, three possible flame topologies are obtained and respectively qualified as anchored, lifted and bowed flames. Out of these three stable flow solutions, only two topologies are found physically possible whenever computed in a CHT context. Furthermore, depending on the solid material and the initial solution, the non linear CHT problem exhibits multiple solutions highlighting the complex coupling that can arise. As evidenced by these simple flame problems, such a behavior higlights the potential difficulties of predicting flame wall interaction problems where coupling schemes and turbulent closures / modeling will be required.


LES Heat transfer Reacting flow CHT Coupling scheme and Convergence 



The work presented in this paper has largely benefited from CERFACS supercomputers as well as granted access to the HPC resources of [TGCC/CINES/IDRIS] under the allocation x20162b7525 made by GENCI. These supports are greatly acknowledged. The authors are grateful to SAFRAN HE for partially funding this work. The authors also thank people of the CFD team for helpful discussions.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Funding: This PhD study was funded by SAFRAN HE (though the funding of S. Berger). The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    Duchaine, F., Mendez, S., Nicoud, F., Corpron, A., Moureau, V., Poinsot, T.: Conjugate heat transfer with large eddy simulation application to gas turbine components. C. R. Acad. Sci. Mécanique 337, 550–561 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bhaskaran, R., Lele, S.K.: Large eddy simulation of free-stream turbulence effects on heat transfer to a high-pressure turbine cascade. Journal of Turbulence, N6. (2010)
  3. 3.
    Maheu, N., Moureau, V., Domingo, P., Duchaine, F., Balarac, G.. In: Proceedings of the Summer Program, edited by Center for Turbulence Research, NASA Ames/Stanford University, Large-eddy simulations of flow and heat transfer around a low-mach number turbine blade (2012)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    ColladoMorata, E., Gourdain, N., Duchaine, F., Gicquel, L.: Effects of free-stream turbulence on high pressure turbine heat transfer predicted by structured and unstructures les. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 55, 5754–68 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Duchaine, F., Maheu, N., Moureau, V., Balarac, G., Moreau, S.: Large eddy simulation and conjugate heat transfer around a low-mach turbine blade. J. Turbomach. 136 (2013)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jauré, S., Duchaine, F., Staffelbach, G., Gicquel, L.: Massively parallel conjugate heat transfer solver based on large eddy simulation and application to an aeronautical combustion chamber. Comput. Sci. Disc. 6 (2013)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Berger, S., Richard, S., Duchaine, F., Staffelbach, G., Gicquel, L.: On the sensitivity of a helicopter combustor wall temperature to convective and radiative thermal loads. Appl. Therm. Eng. 103, 1450–1459 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sagaut, P.: Large Eddy Simulation for Incompressible Flows Scientific Computation Series. Springer (2000)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pope, S.B.: Stochastic lagrangian models of velocity in homogeneous turbulent shear flow. Phys. Fluids 14, 1696–1702 (2002)MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Koren, C., Viquelin, R., Gicquel, O.: Self-adaptive coupling frequency for unsteady coupled conjugate heat transfer simulations. Int. J. Therm. Sci. 118, 340–354 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kedia, K., Safta, C., Ray, J., Najm, H., Ghoniem, A.: A second-order coupled immersed boundary-samr construction for chemically reacting flow over a heat-conducting cartesian gridconforming solid. J. Comput. Phys. 272, 408–428 (2014)MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kedia, K., Ghoniem, A.: The anchoring mechanism of a bluff-body stabilized laminar premixed flame. Combust. Flame 161, 327–339 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kedia, K.S., Ghoniem, A.F.: The blow-off mechanism of a bluff-body stabilized laminar premixed flame. Combust. Flame 162, 1304–1315 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kedia, K.S., Ghoniem, A.F.: The response of a hamonically forced premixed flame stabilized on a heat-conducting bluff-body. Combust. Flame 35, 1065–1072 (2015)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Williams, G., Shiman, C.: Some properties of rod-stabilized flame c homogeneous gas mixtures. Proc. Combust. Inst. 4, 733–742 (1953)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kundu, K., Banerjee, D., Bhadhuri, D.: Theoretical analysis on flame stabilization by a bluff-body. Comb. Sci. Technol. 17, 153–162 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kundu, K., Banerjee, D., Bhadhuri, D.: On flame stabilization by bluff-bodies. J. Eng. Power 102, 209–214 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kiel, B., abd, K.G., Gord, J., Miller, J., Lynch, A., Hill, R., Phillips, S.: A detailed investigation of bluff-body stabilized flames. In: 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, AIAA 2007-168 edited by AIAA (2007)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fan, A., Wan, J., abd, K.M., Yao, H., Liu, W.: Interaction between heat transfer, flow field and flame stabilization in a micro-combustor with a bluff body. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 66, 72–79 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Longwell, J., Frost, E., Weiss, M.: Flame stability in bluff body recirculation zones. Ind. Eng. Chem. 45(8), 1629–1633 (1953). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kao, K.H., Liou, M.S.: Application of chimera/unstructured hybrid grids for conjugate heat transfer. AIAA J. 35, 1472–1478 (1997)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Han, Z.X., Dennis, B., Dulikravich, G.: Simultaneous prediction of external flow-field and temperature in internally cooled 3-d turbine blode material. Int. J. Turbomach. 18, 47–58 (2001)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rahman, F., Visser, J.A., Morris, R.M.: Capturing sudden increase in heat transfer on the suction side of a turbine blade using a navier-stokes solver. J. Turbomach. 127, 552–556 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ganesan, V.: Non-reacting and reacting flow analysis in an aero-engine gas turbine combustor using cfd. In: SAE World Congress, p. 2007, Michigan, USA (2007)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Craig, A., Vertenstein, M., Jacob, R.: A new flexible coupler for earth system modeling developed for ccsm4 and cesm1. Int. J. High Perform. Comput. Appl. 26, 31–42 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lax, P.D., Wendroff, B.: Systems of conservation laws. Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 13, 217–237 (1960)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Colin, O., Ducros, F., Veynante, D., Poinsot, T.: A thickened flame model for large eddy simulations of turbulent premixed combustion. Phys. Fluids 12, 1843–1863 (2000)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Poinsot, T., Lele, S.: Boundary conditions for direct simulations of compressible viscous flows. J. Comput. Phys. 101, 104–129 (1992)MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Franzelli, B., Riber, E., Sanjosé, M., Poinsot, T.: A two-step chemical scheme for Large-Eddy Simulation of kerosene-air flames. Combust. Flame 157, 1364–1373 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Peters, N.: Laminar flamelet concepts in turbulent combustion. In: 21st Symposium (International) on Combustion, pp 1231–1250. The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh (1986)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Blint, R.J.: The relationship of the laminar flame width to flame speed. Combust. Sci. Tech. 49, 79–92 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Von Kármán, T., Millan, G.: Thermal Theory of Laminar Flame Front Near Cold Wall, pp 173–177. The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Munich (1953)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Williams, F.A.: Combustion Theory. Benjamin Cummings, Menlo Park, CA (1985)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lu, J.H., Ezekoye, O., Greif, R., Sawyer, F.: Unsteady heat transfer during side wall quenching of a laminar flame. In: 23rd Symposium (International) on Combustion, pp 441–446. The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh (1990)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Grag, V.: Heat transfer research on gas turbine airfoils at nasa grc. Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 23, 109–36 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sondak, D.L., Dorney, D.J.: Simulation of coupled unsteady flow and heat conduction in turbine stage. J. Prop. Power 16, 1141–1148 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Papanicolaou, E., Giebert, D., Koch, R., Schultz, A.: A conservation-based discretization approach for conjugate heat transfer calculations in hot-gas ducting turbomachinery components. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 44, 3413–3429 (2001)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bohn, D., Ren, J., Kusterer, K.: Systematic investigation on conjugate heat transfer rates of film cooling configurations. J. Rotating Mach. 2005, 211–220 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    DeCecchis, D., Drummond, L., Castillo, J.: Design of a Distributed Coupling Toolkit for High Performance Computing Environment. Mathematical and Computer Modelling (2011)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Valcke, S., Balaji, V., Craig, A., DeLuca, C., Dunlap, R., Ford, R.W., Jacob, R., Larson, J., O’Kuinghttons, R., Riley, G.D., Vertenstein, M.: Coupling technologies for earth system modelling. Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss. 5, 1987–2006 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CERFACSToulouseFrance
  2. 2.SAFRAN Helicopter EnginesBordesFrance

Personalised recommendations