Experimental and Applied Acarology

, Volume 75, Issue 1, pp 1–24 | Cite as

Influence of the erineum strain of Colomerus vitis (Acari: Eriophyidae) on grape (Vitis vinifera) defense mechanisms

  • Saeid Javadi Khederi
  • Mohammad Khanjani
  • Mansur Gholami
  • Onofrio Panzarino
  • Enrico de Lillo


Grape (Vitis vinifera) is commonly affected by the erineum strain of Colomerus vitis (GEM) in Iran and the susceptibility of grape cultivars to GEM is poorly understood. In order to evaluate the impact of GEM on grape and its defense mechanisms against the mite, an exploratory study was carried out on 19 cultivars (18 Iranian and the non-native Muscat Gordo). The differential susceptibility of cultivars to GEM was compared on the basis of the area of leaf damage induced by GEM. The cultivars White Thompson seedless of Bovanat, Atabaki Zarghan, Koladari Ghoochan and Sahebi Uroomie were less susceptible to GEM, whereas Ghalati Dodaj, Rishbaba, Muscat Gordo and Neyshaboori Birjand appeared to be the most affected by the mite. In a no-choice setup, plants of selected cultivars of these two groups were infested by GEM and assayed for 10 biomarkers usually related to plant stress mechanisms against plant feeders: the activity of defense enzymes—peroxidase (POX), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), catalase (CAT), the amount of total polyphenolics, total flavonoids, total soluble carbohydrates, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and malondialdehyde (MDA) expressing lipid peroxidation. The biomarkers were assessed in grape leaves 7 days before releasing the mites, as well as 7, 14 and 28 days after infestation (DAI). The activity of the enzymes and the amount of the compounds usually increased in percentage after mite infestation. A significant negative correlation was found between the area of leaf damage and PPO, POX, SOD, MDA and H2O2 for all sampling dates. The area of leaf damage showed a significant positive correlation with total soluble carbohydrates at 28 DAI, and significant negative correlations with CAT (at 14 and 28 DAI), PAL and total flavonoids (at 7 DAI). No correlation was observed between area of leaf damage and total polyphenolics. The biomarkers PPO, SOD, CAT activity and H2O2 provided the best explanation for the response of grape cultivars to GEM infestation.


Gall-making mite Grapevine cultivars Antioxidative enzymes Biomarkers Iran Plant resistance Leaf damage IPM 



The authors are strongly in debt to Prof. M. Kielkiewicz (Department of Applied Entomology; Faculty of Horticulture, Biotechnology and Landscape Architecture; Warsaw University of Life Sciences – SGGW, Warsaw, Poland), B. Rector (USDA-ARS, Great Basin Rangelands Research Unit, Reno, NV, USA), C.C. Childers (University of Florida, Citrus Research and Education Center, 700 Experiment Station Road, Lake Alfred, FL, USA) and the anonymous reviewers for their critical review and language assistance which have surely improved the paper. The study was supported by a Bu-Ali University Grant (1164222) for 2013.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 45 kb)


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of AgricultureBu-Ali Sina UniversityHamedanIran
  2. 2.Department of Horticulture, Faculty of AgricultureBu-Ali Sina UniversityHamedanIran
  3. 3.Department of Soil, Plant and Food Sciences, Entomological and Zoological SectionUniversity of Bari Aldo MoroBariItaly

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