Experimental and Applied Acarology

, Volume 75, Issue 1, pp 97–106 | Cite as

Differential diagnosis of Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes persulcatus: nymphs and larvae

  • L. A. Grigoryeva
  • M. K. Stanyukovich


We developed a method for differential diagnosis of nymphs and larvae of sheep (Ixodes ricinus (L.)) and taiga (I. persulcatus Sch.) ticks (Parasitiformes: Ixodidae) which allows to identify live material in the field.


Ixodes persulcatus I. ricinus Larvae Nymphs Differential diagnosis 



The research was partly supported financially by a grant from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR), Grant Nos. 18-04-00075-a, 15-04-01203. All applicable international guidelines for care and use of animals were followed. We would like to thank A.A. Mirolubov, engineer of the Department of Electron Microscopy at the Zoological Institute of RAS, for his qualified assistance with SEM, and the administration of the biological research station of Zoological Institute of RAS [Biological Station Rybachy (Zoological Institute of RAS: St. Petersburg, Russia)], as well as our colleagues at the Zoological Institute RAS E.V. Vorobieva and P.I. Genkin who contributed to the collection of the material.


  1. Balashov YS (2012) Demography and population models of ticks of the genus Ixodes with long-term life cycles. Entomol Rev 92:1006–1011. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Balashov YS, Grigoryeva LA, Leonovich SA (2010) Estimation of the biological age in females of the taiga tick Ixodes persulcatus by changes in the body shape and the surface of the integument. Entomol Rev 90(2):251–254. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baneth G (2014) Tick-borne infections of animals and humans: a common ground. Int J Parasitol 44:591–596. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bugmyrin SV, Bespyatova LA, Korotkov YuS, Burenkova LA, Belova OA, Romanova LIu, Kozlovskaya LI, Karganova GG, Ieshko EP (2013) Distribution of Ixodes ricinus and I. persulcatus ticks in southern Karelia (Russia). Ticks Tick Borne Dis 4:57–62. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bugmyrin SV, Belova OA, Bespyatova LA, Ieshko EP, Karganova GG (2016) Morphological features of Ixodes persulcatus and I. ricinus hybrids: nymphs and adults. Exp Appl Acarol 69(3):359–369. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Dubinina EV, Volzit OV, Alekseev AN (2007) Simplified method for in vivo differences between the two tick species of the genus Ixodes in sympatric foci of mixed infections. Pest Manag 3:24–27 (in Russian) Google Scholar
  7. Eisen L, Lane R (2002) Vectors of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. In: Gray J, Kahl O, Lane RS, Stanek G (eds) Lyme borreliosis. Biology, epidemiology and control. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, pp 91–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Filippova NA (1977) Ixodid ticks subfamily Ixodinae (Fauna USSR). Arachnida 4(4):272–283, 316–330 (in Russian) Google Scholar
  9. Filippova NA (1999) Sympatry of closely related species of Ixodid ticks and its possible role in parasitic systems of natural foci of transmissiblee diseases. Parasitologiya 33:223–241 (in Russian) Google Scholar
  10. Filippova NA (2002) Forms of sympatry and possible ways of microevolution of closely related species of the group Ixodes ricinus-persulcatus (Ixodidae). Acta Zool Litua 12(3):215–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Grigoryeva LA, Stanyukovich MK (2016) The features of the taiga tick life cycle Ixodes persulcatus Sch., (Acari: Ixodinae) in the north-west of Russia. Exp Appl Acarol 69(3):347–357. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Guglielmone AA, Robbins RG, Apanaskevich D, Petney TN, Estrada-Peña A, Horak IG (2014) The hard ticks of the world (Acari: Ixodida: Ixodidae). Springer.
  13. Hillyard PD (1996) Ticks of north-west Europe. The Natural History Museum, London, p 178Google Scholar
  14. Korenberg EI, Kovalevskii YuV, Levin ML, Shchyogoleva TV (2001) The prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes persulcatus and I. ricinus in the zone of their sympatry. Fol Parasitol 48:63–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Korenberg EI, Gorelova NB, Kovalevskii YuV (2002) Ecology of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Russia. In: Gray J, Kahl O, Lane RS, Stanek G (eds) Lyme borreliosis. Biology, epidemiology and control. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, pp 175–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kovalev SY, Golovljova IV, Mukhacheva TA (2016) Natural hybridization between Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes persulcatus ticks evidenced by molecular genetics methods. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 7(1):113–118. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Lindquist L, Vapalahti O (2008) Tick-borne encephalitis. Lancet 371:1861–1871. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Marquez FJ, Morel PC, Guiguen C, Beaucournu JC (1992) Cle dichotomique des Ixodidae D`Europe. I—Les larves du genre Ixodes. Acarologia XXXIII 4:325–330Google Scholar
  19. Walker AR (2014) Ticks and associated diseases: a retrospective review. Med Vet Entomol 28:1–5. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Winston PW, Bates DH (1960) Saturated solutions for the control of humidity in biological research. Ecology 41:232–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Zoological Institute of RASSaint PetersburgRussia

Personalised recommendations