Promoting Teachers’ Implementation of Classroom-Based Prevention Programming Through Coaching: The Mediating Role of the Coach–Teacher Relationship
There is growing awareness of the importance of implementation fidelity and the supports, such as coaching, to optimize it. This study examined how coaching activities (i.e., check-ins, needs assessment, modeling, and technical assistance) related directly and indirectly to implementation dosage and quality of the PAX Good Behavior Game, via a mediating pathway through working relationship. Mediation analyses of 138 teachers revealed direct effects of modeling and working relationship on implementation dosage, whereas needs assessment was associated with greater dosage indirectly, by higher ratings of the working relationship. Understanding how coaching activities promote implementation fidelity elements has implications for improving program effectiveness.
KeywordsEvidence-based programs Implementation Coaching activities Working relationship Mediation
We thank Celene Domitrovich and Kimberly Becker for their contributions to the collection of these data.
This work was funded in part by grants from the Institute of Education Sciences awarded to Catherine Bradshaw (R305A130701 and R305A150221) and Nicholas Ialongo (R305A080326), and the National Institute of Mental Health (T32 MH019545-23) awarded to Philip Leaf.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all participants included in the study.
- Aarons, G. A., Farahnak, L. R., & Ehrhart, M. G. (2014). Leadership and strategic organizational climate to support evidence-based practice implementation. In R. S. Beidas & P. C. Kendall (Eds.), Dissemination and implementation of evidence-based practices in child and adolescent mental health (pp. 82–97). New York: Guildford Press.Google Scholar
- Bearman, S. K., Weisz, J. R., Chorpita, B. F., Hoagwood, K., Ward, A., Ugueto, A. M., & Bernstein, A. (2013). More practice, less preach? The role of supervision processes and therapist characteristics in EBP implementation. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 40(6), 518–529. doi: 10.1007/s10488-013-0485-5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Becker, K. D., Bradshaw, C. P., Domitrovich, C. E., & Ialongo, N. S. (2013a). Coaching teachers to improve implementation of the good behavior game. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 40(6), 482–493. doi: 10.1007/s10488-013-0482-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of schoolwide positive behavioral interventions and supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12(3), 133–148. doi: 10.1177/1098300709334798.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bradshaw, C. P., Pas, E. T., Goldweber, A., Rosenberg, M. S., & Leaf, P. J. (2012). Integrating school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports with tier 2 coaching to student support teams: The PBISplus model. Advances in School Mental Health Promotion, 5(3), 177–193. doi: 10.1080/1754730x.2012.707429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Coles, E. K., Owens, J. S., Serrano, V. J., Slavec, J., & Evans, S. W. (2015). From consultation to student outcomes: The role of teacher knowledge, skills, and beliefs in increasing integrity in classroom management strategies. School Mental Health, 7(1), 34–48. doi: 10.1007/s12310-015-9143-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cook, C. R., Lyon, A. R., Kubergovic, D., Browning Wright, D., & Zhang, Y. (2015). A supportive beliefs intervention to facilitate the implementation of evidence-based practices within a multi-tiered system of supports. School Mental Health, 7(1), 49–60. doi: 10.1007/s12310-014-9139-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Domitrovich, C. E., Bradshaw, C. P., Poduska, J. M., Hoagwood, K., Buckley, J. A., Olin, S., … Ialongo, N. S. (2008). Maximizing the implementation quality of evidence-based preventive interventions in schools: A conceptual framework. Advances in School Mental Health Promotion, 1(3), 6–28. doi: 10.1080/1754730x.2008.9715730.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Domitrovich, C. E., Pas, E. T., Bradshaw, C. P., Becker, K. D., Keperling, J. P., Embry, D. D., & Ialongo, N. (2015). Individual and school organizational factors that influence implementation of the PAX good behavior game intervention. Prevention Science. doi: 10.1007/s11121-015-0557-8.Google Scholar
- Domitrovich, C. E., Poduska, J. M., & Bradshaw, C. P. (2008). The teacher-coach alliance scale. Unpublished technical report. Penn State University.Google Scholar
- Elias, M. J., Zins, J. E., Graczyk, P. A., & Weissberg, R. P. (2003). Implementation, sustainability, and scaling up of social-emotional and academic innovations in public schools. School Psychology Review, 32, 303–319.Google Scholar
- Embry, D., Staatemeier, G., Richardson, C., Lauger, K., & Mitich, J. (2003). The PAX good behavior game (1st edn.). Center City, MN: Hazelden.Google Scholar
- Frank, J. L., & Kratochwill, T. R. (2014). School-based problem-solving consultation: Plotting a new course for evidence-based research and practice in consultation. In W. P. Erchul & S. M. Sheridan (Eds.), Handbook of research in school consultation (2 ed., pp. 13–30). New York: Taylor and Francis.Google Scholar
- Garet, M. S., Heppen, J., Walters, K., Smith, T., & Yang, R. (2016). Does content-focused teacher professional development work? Findings from three Institute of Education Sciences Studies (Evaluation Brief NCEE 2017-4010). Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/pubs/20174010/pdf/20174010.pdf.
- Greenberg, M., & Kusché, C. A. & Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (2011). Grade level PATHS (grades 3–5). South Deerfield, MA: Channing-Bete Co.Google Scholar
- Joyce, B., & Showers, B. (1980). Improving inservice training: The message of research. Educational Leadership, 37(5), 379–385.Google Scholar
- Kratochwill, T., Elliott, S., & Rotto, P. C. (1995). Best practices in school-based behavioral consultation. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology III (pp. 519–535). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.Google Scholar
- Kretlow, A. G., & Bartholomew, C. C. (2010). Using coaching to improve the fidelity of evidence-based practices: A review of studies. Teacher Education and Special Education: The Journal of the Teacher Education Division of the Council for Exceptional Children, 33(4), 279–299. doi: 10.1177/0888406410371643.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kusché, C. A., & Greenberg, M. & Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (2011). Grade level PATHS (grades 1–2). South Deerfield, MD: Channing-Bete Co.Google Scholar
- MacKinnon, D. (2008). Introduction to statistical mediation analysis. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2014). Mplus user’s guide (Vol. 7). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
- Nadeem, E., Gleacher, A., & Beidas, R. S. (2013). Consultation as an implementation strategy for evidence-based practices across multiple contexts: Unpacking the black box. Administration and Policy in Mental Health, 40(6), 439–450. doi: 10.1007/s10488-013-0502-8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Noell, G. H., & Gansle, K. A. (2014). Research examining the relationships between consultation procedures, treatment integrity, and outcomes. In W. P. Erchul & S. M. Sheridan (Eds.), Handbook of research in school consultation (Vol. 2, pp. 386–408). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Owens, J. S., Schwartz, M. E., Erchul, W. P., Himawan, L. K., Evans, S. W., Coles, E. K., & Schulte, A. C. (2017). Teacher perceptions of school consultant social influence strategies: Replication and expansion. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation. doi: 10.1080/10474412.2016.1275649.Google Scholar
- Pas, E. T., Bradshaw, C. P., Becker, K. D., Domitrovich, C. E., Berg, J., Musci, R., & Ialongo, N. S. (2015). Identifying patterns of coaching to support the implementation of the good behavior game: The role of teacher characteristics. School Mental Health, 7(1), 61–73. doi: 10.1007/s12310-015-9145-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pas, E. T., Bradshaw, C. P., & Cash, A. H. (2014). Coaching classroom-based preventive interventions. In M. D. Weist, N. A. Lever, C. P. Bradshaw & J. S. Owens (Eds.), Handbook of school mental health: research, training, practice, and policy (2 ed., pp. 255–267). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pas, E. T., Larson, K., Reinke, W., Herman, K., & Bradshaw, C. P. (2016). Implementation and acceptability of an adapted classroom check-up coaching model to promote culturally-responsive classroom management. The Education & Treatment of Children, 39, 467–492. doi: 10.1353/etc.2016.0021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Reinke, W. M., Herman, K. C., & Sprick, R. (2011). Motivational interviewing for effective classroom management: The classroom check-up. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Reinke, W. M., Herman, K. C., Stormont, M., Newcomer, L., & David, K. (2013). Illustrating the multiple facets and levels of fidelity of implementation to a teacher classroom management intervention. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 40(6), 494–506. doi: 10.1007/s10488-013-0496-2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Saldana, L., Chamberlain, P., & Chapman, J. (2016). A supervisor-targeted implementation approach to promote system change: The R3 Model. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 43(6), 879–892. doi: 10.1007/s10488-016-0730-9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Schaffer, K., Rouiller, S., Embry, D., & Ialongo, N. (2006). The PAX good behavior game implementation rubric. Unpublished technical report. Johns Hopkins University.Google Scholar
- Spoth, R., Rohrbach, L., Greenberg, M., Leaf, P., Brown, C. H., Fagan, A., … Hawkins, J. D. (2013). Addressing core challenges for the next generation of type 2 translation research and systems: The translation science to population impact (TSci Impact) framework. Prevention Science, 14, 319–351. doi: 10.1007/s11121-012-0362-6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Stormont, M., Reinke, W. M., Newcomer, L., Marchese, D., & Lewis, C. (2015). Coaching teachers’ use of social behavior interventions to improve children’s outcomes: A review of the literature. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 17(2), 69–82. doi: 10.1177/1098300714550657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Taylor, J. (2007). Instructional coaching: The state of the art. In M. Mangin & S. Stoelinga (Eds.), Effective teacher leadership: Using research to inform and reform. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
- U.S. Department of Education. (2012). Prevalence and implementation fidelity of research-based prevention programs in public schools: Final report Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/rschstat/eval/other/research-based-prevention.pdf.