Applied Mathematics and Mechanics

, Volume 34, Issue 2, pp 177–188 | Cite as

Convective transport of nanoparticles in multi-layer fluid flow

  • K. Vajravelu
  • K. V. Prasad
  • S. AbbasbandyEmail author


Technologically, multi-layer fluid models are important in understanding fluid-fluid or fluid-nanoparticle interactions and their effects on flow and heat transfer characteristics. However, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, little attention has been paid to the study of three-layer fluid models with nanofluids. Therefore, a three-layer fluid flow model with nanofluids is formulated in this paper. The governing coupled nonlinear differential equations of the problem are non-dimensionalized by using appropriate fundamental quantities. The resulting multi-point boundary value problem is solved numerically by quasi-linearization and Richardson’s extrapolation with modified boundary conditions. The effects of the model parameters on the flow and heat transfer are obtained and analyzed. The results show that an increase in the nanoparticle concentration in the base fluid can modify the fluid-velocity at the interface of the two fluids and reduce the shear not only at the surface of the clear fluid but also at the interface between them. That is, nanofluids play a vital role in modifying the flow phenomena. Therefore, one can use nanofluids to obtain the desired qualities for the multi-fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics.

Key words

multi-layer fluid model interaction nanofluid 

Chinese Library Classification


2010 Mathematics Subject Classification



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Copyright information

© Shanghai University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MathematicsUniversity of Central FloridaOrlandoUSA
  2. 2.Department of MathematicsVijayanagra Sri Krishnadevaraya UniversityBellaryIndia
  3. 3.Department of Applied MathematicsImam Khomeini International UniversityGhazvinIran

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