Applied Mathematics and Mechanics

, Volume 28, Issue 1, pp 69–78 | Cite as

Effects of temperature-dependent viscosity variation on entropy generation, heat and fluid flow through a porous-saturated duct of rectangular cross-section

  • K. HoomanEmail author
  • H. Gurgenci


Effect of temperature-dependent viscosity on fully developed forced convection in a duct of rectangular cross-section occupied by a fluid-saturated porous medium is investigated analytically. The Darcy flow model is applied and the viscosity-temperature relation is assumed to be an inverse-linear one. The case of uniform heat flux on the walls, i.e. the H boundary condition in the terminology of Kays and Crawford [12], is treated. For the case of a fluid whose viscosity decreases with temperature, it is found that the effect of the variation is to increase the Nusselt number for heated walls. Having found the velocity and the temperature distribution, the second law of thermodynamics is invoked to find the local and average entropy generation rate. Expressions for the entropy generation rate, the Bejan number, the heat transfer irreversibility, and the fluid flow irreversibility are presented in terms of the Brinkman number, the Péclet number, the viscosity variation number, the dimensionless wall heat flux, and the aspect ratio (width to height ratio). These expressions let a parametric study of the problem based on which it is observed that the entropy generated due to flow in a duct of square cross-section is more than those of rectangular counterparts while increasing the aspect ratio decreases the entropy generation rate similar to what previously reported for the clear flow case by Ratts and Raut [14].

Key words

entropy generation rate forced convection porous medium rectangular duct temperature-dependent viscosity 



aspect ratio


coefficient defined by Eq. (17)


Bejan number defined by Eq.(32)


Brinkman number defined by Eq.(29)


specific heat at constant pressure


hydraulic diameter


coefficient defined by Eq.(14)


Negative of the applied pressure gradient


duct height


thermal conductivity




coefficient defined by Eq.(14)

S1, S2

series defined by Eq.(19b,c)


entropy generation rate per unit volume




wall temperature


bulk mean temperature


filtration velocity


mean velocity


normalized velocity u/ū


dimensionless coordinates


viscosity variation number


fluid friction irreversibility


heat transfer irreversibility


dimensionless entropy generation number defined by Eq.(31)


Nusselt number defined by Eq.(20)


viscosity variation parameter defined by Eq.(11)


Péclet number defined by Eq.(27a)


dimensionless wall heat flux by Eq.(27b)


wall heat flux


dimensionless parameter defined by Eq.(10)


Cartesian coordinates

Greek symbols


k T w T* / qH


fluid viscosity


Eigenvalues of the problem


fluid density



constant property



Chinese Library Classification


2000 Mathematics Subject Classification



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Copyright information

© Editorial Committee of Appl. Math. Mech. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Engineeringthe University of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia

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