Distribution of greenhouse gases in hyper-arid and arid areas of northern Chile and the contribution of the high altitude wetland microbiome (Salar de Huasco, Chile)
Northern Chile harbors different bioclimatic zones including hyper-arid and arid ecosystems and hotspots of microbial life, such as high altitude wetlands, which may contribute differentially to greenhouse gases (GHG) such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). In this study, we explored ground level GHG distribution and the potential role of a wetland situated at 3800 m.a.s.l, and characterized by high solar radiation < 1600 W m−2, extreme temperature ranges (−12 to 24 °C) and wind stress (< 17 m s−1). The water source of the wetland is mainly groundwater springs, which generates streams and ponds surrounded by peatlands. These sites support a rich microbial aquatic life including diverse bacteria and archaea communities, which transiently form more complex structures, such as microbial mats. In this study, GHG were measured in the water and above ground level air at the wetland site and along an elevation gradient in different bioclimatic areas from arid to hyper-arid zones. The microbiome from the water and sediments was described by high-throughput sequencing 16S rRNA and rDNA genes. The results indicate that GHG at ground level were variable along the elevation gradient potentially associated with different bioclimatic zones, reaching high values at the high Andean steppe and variable but lower values in the Atacama Desert and at the wetland. The water areas of the wetland presented high concentrations of CH4 and CO2, particularly at the spring areas and in air bubbles below microbial mats. The microbial community was rich (> 40 phyla), including archaea and bacteria potentially active in the different matrices studied (water, sediments and mats). Functional microbial groups associated with GHG recycling were detected at low frequency, i.e., < 2.5% of total sequences. Our results indicate that hyper-arid and arid areas of northern Chile are sites of GHG exchange associated with various bioclimatic zones and particularly in aquatic areas of the wetland where this ecosystem could represent a net sink of N2O and a source for CH4 and CO2.
KeywordsGreenhouse gases Methanogens Microbial mat High altitude wetland
We are grateful to M.J. Gálvez and D. Kalenitchenko for their technical support, to all the participants of the field trips and particularly to Pedro and Margarita Luca for their hospitality at Salar de Huasco shelter facilities. This work is part of the FONDECYT Project #1140356, #1140179, #11130418, #1171324, #1150891, LIA-MORFUN, COPAS Sur-Austral (PFB-31), INCAR center (1510027), and CONICYT-CNRS 2014 France (PCCI140034).
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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