Ultraviolet radiation in the Atacama Desert

  • R. R. Cordero
  • A. Damiani
  • J. Jorquera
  • E. Sepúlveda
  • M. Caballero
  • S. Fernandez
  • S. Feron
  • P. J. Llanillo
  • J. Carrasco
  • D. Laroze
  • F. Labbe
Original Paper

Abstract

The world’s highest levels of surface ultraviolet (UV) irradiance have been measured in the Atacama Desert. This area is characterized by its high altitude, prevalent cloudless conditions, and a relatively low total ozone column. In this paper, we provide estimates of the surface UV (monthly UV index at noon and annual doses of UV-B and UV-A) for all sky conditions in the Atacama Desert. We found that the UV index at noon during the austral summer is expected to be greater than 11 in the whole desert. The annual UV-B (UV-A) doses were found to range from about 3.5 kWh/m2 (130 kWh/m2) in coastal areas to 5 kWh/m2 (160 kWh/m2) on the Andean plateau. Our results confirm significant interhemispherical differences. Typical annual UV-B doses in the Atacama Desert are about 40% greater than typical annual UV-B doses in northern Africa. Mostly due to seasonal changes in the ozone, the differences between the Atacama Desert and northern Africa are expected to be about 60% in the case of peak UV-B levels (i.e. the UV-B irradiances at noon close to the summer solstice in each hemisphere). Interhemispherical differences in the UV-A are significantly lower since the effect of the ozone in this part of the spectrum is minor.

Keywords

UV Spectroradiometry UV radiance Atacama 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The support of the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONICYT, Preis ACT1410, 1171690, 1161460 and 1151034) and the Corporación de Fomento de la Producción (CORFO, Preis 17BPE-73748 and 16BPE2-66227), Centro de Nanotecnología (CEDENNA), and the Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH, Preis USA1555), is gratefully acknowledged.

Authors’ contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: RRC, AD and JC Performed the experiments: JJ., and ES. Analyzed the data: RRC, AD, SF, MC, SF, FL, DL and PL Wrote the paper: RRC, AD, JC and SF.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare neither competing interests nor conflict of interests.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Ethical approval

Not applicable since this research did not involved humans, animals, plants or any form of life.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. R. Cordero
    • 1
  • A. Damiani
    • 1
    • 2
  • J. Jorquera
    • 1
  • E. Sepúlveda
    • 1
  • M. Caballero
    • 1
  • S. Fernandez
    • 1
  • S. Feron
    • 1
  • P. J. Llanillo
    • 1
  • J. Carrasco
    • 3
  • D. Laroze
    • 4
  • F. Labbe
    • 5
  1. 1.Universidad de Santiago de ChileSantiagoChile
  2. 2.Center for Environmental Remote SensingChiba UniversityChibaJapan
  3. 3.Universidad de MagallanesPunta ArenasChile
  4. 4.Instituto de Alta InvestigaciónUniversidad de TarapacáAricaChile
  5. 5.Universidad Técnica Federico Santa MaríaValparaisoChile

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