A new chaotic complex map for robust video watermarking

Abstract

In this paper, using a new two-dimensional complex map, a secure video watermarking system is presented. Standard analyzes have been performed to analyze a dynamical system to prove the existence of chaos in the proposed map and the results indicate a chaotic behavior in this complex chaotic map. In addition, an efficient algorithm based on IWT, DWT, and CT transforms with the participation of single value decomposition for the embedding and extraction process is introduced. The simulation results showed that the proposed algorithm has good visual quality based on criteria such as PSNR and SSIM. Geometric and non-geometric attacks were also performed on the video obtained by watermarking, and the results showed that the proposed algorithm in many attacks with a value of 1.00 for the NC criterion can be a very robust algorithm against attacks. A correlation-based process for detecting the rotational attack is also presented which makes the rotational geometric attack successfully pass. The comparison of simulation results with other similar algorithms shows that the proposed method performs better than any of these methods in terms of visual quality analysis and attack resistance and can be used as an efficient robust algorithm in applied processes.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14

References

  1. Agilandeeswari L, Ganesan K (2016a) A robust color video watermarking scheme based on hybrid embedding techniques. Multimed Tools Appl 75(14):8745–8780

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Agilandeeswari L, Ganesan K (2016b) An efficient hilbert and integer wavelet transform based video watermarking. J Eng Sci Technol 11(3):327–345

    Google Scholar 

  3. Akhlaghian F, Bahrami Z (2015) A new robust video watermarking algorithm against cropping and rotating attacks, In: 2015 12th International Iranian Society of Cryptology Conference on Information Security and Cryptology (ISCISC), IEEE, pp. 122–127

  4. Akhshani A, Behnia S, Akhavan A, Jafarizadeh M, Hassan HA, Hassan Z (2009) Hash function based on hierarchy of 2D piecewise nonlinear chaotic maps. Chaos Solitons Fractals 42(4):2405–2412

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Akhshani A, Akhavan A, Mobaraki A, Lim S-C, Hassan Z (2014) Pseudo random number generator based on quantum chaotic map. Commun Nonlinear Sci Numer Simul 19(1):101–111

    MATH  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Al-Otum HM (2014) Semi-fragile watermarking for grayscale image authentication and tamper detection based on an adjusted expanded-bit multiscale quantization-based technique. J Vis Commun Image Represent 25(5):1064–1081

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Amiri MD, Amiri A, Meghdadi M (2019) HVS-based scalable video watermarking. Multimed Syst 25(4):273–291

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Ansari IA, Pant M (2017) Multipurpose image watermarking in the domain of DWT based on SVD and ABC. Pattern Recognit Lett 94(Supplement C):228–236

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Asikuzzaman M, Pickering MR (2018) An overview of digital video watermarking. IEEE Trans Circuits Syst Video Technol 28(9):2131–2153

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Ayubi P, Setayeshi S, Rahmani AM (2020) Deterministic chaos game: a new fractal based pseudo-random number generator and its cryptographic application. J Inf Secur Appl 52:102472

    Google Scholar 

  11. Barani MJ, Valandar MY, Ayubi P (2015a) A secure watermark embedding approach based on chaotic map for image tamper detection. In: 2015 7th conference on information and knowledge technology (IKT). IEEE, pp 1–5

  12. Barani MJ, Ayubi P, Jalili F, Valandar MY, Azariyun E (2015b) Image forgery detection in contourlet transform domain based on new chaotic cellular automata. Secur Commun Netw 8(18):4343–4361

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Barani MJ, Valandar MY, Ayubi P (2019) A new digital image tamper detection algorithm based on integer wavelet transform and secured by encrypted authentication sequence with 3d quantum map. Optik 187:205–222

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Barani MJ, Ayubi P, Yousefi Valandar M, Irani BY (2020a) A new pseudo random number generator based on generalized newton complex map with dynamic key. J Inf Secur Appl 53:102509

    Google Scholar 

  15. Barani MJ, Ayubi P, Valandar MY, Irani BY (2020b) A blind video watermarking algorithm robust to lossy video compression attacks based on generalized newton complex map and contourlet transform. Multimed Tools Appl 79(3):2127–2159

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Batool SI, Shah T, Khan M (2014) A color image watermarking scheme based on affine transformation and S4 permutation. Neural Comput Appl 25(7):2037–2045

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Bayoudh I, Jabra SB, Zagrouba E (2017) Online multi-sprites based video watermarking robust to collusion and transcoding attacks for emerging applications. Multimed Tools Appl 77:14361–14379

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Behnia S, Teshnehlab M, Ayubi P (2010) Multiple-watermarking scheme based on improved chaotic maps. Commun Nonlinear Sci Numer Simul 15(9):2469–2478

    MathSciNet  MATH  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Behnia S, Ayubi P, Soltanpoor W (2012) Image encryption based on quantum chaotic map and FSM transforms. In: 2012 XVth international conference on telecommunications network strategy and planning symposium (NETWORKS). IEEE, pp 1–6

  20. Behnia S, Ahadpour S, Ayubi P (2014) Design and implementation of coupled chaotic maps in watermarking. Appl Soft Comput 21:481–490

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Belhaj M, Mitrea M, Prêteux F, Duta S (2010) MPEG-4 AVC robust video watermarking based on QIM and perceptual masking. In: 2010 8th international conference on communications, pp 477–480

  22. Bhardwaj A, Verma VS, Jha RK (2018) Robust video watermarking using significant frame selection based on coefficient difference of lifting wavelet transform. Multimed Tools Appl 77:19659–19678

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Boisvert J, Drouin M-A, Jodoin P-M (2015) High-speed transition patterns for video projection, 3d reconstruction, and copyright protection. Pattern Recognit 48(3):720–731

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Caragata D, Mucarquer JA, Koscina M, Assad SE (2016) Cryptanalysis of an improved fragile watermarking scheme. AEU Int J Electron Commun 70(6):777–785

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Chamlawi R, Khan A (2010) Digital image authentication and recovery: employing integer transform based information embedding and extraction. Inf Sci 180(24):4909–4928

    MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Chang C-C, Chen K-N, Lee C-F, Liu L-J (2011) A secure fragile watermarking scheme based on chaos-and-hamming code. J Syst Softw 84(9):1462–1470

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Chen L, Zhao J (2017a) Robust contourlet-based blind watermarking for depth-image-based rendering 3D images. Sig Process Image Commun 54(Supplement C):56–65

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Chen L, Zhao J (2017b) Contourlet-based image and video watermarking robust to geometric attacks and compressions. Multimed Tools Appl 77:7187–7204

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Do MN, Vetterli M (2005) The contourlet transform: an efficient directional multiresolution image representation. IEEE Trans Image Process 14(12):2091–2106

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Dutta T, Gupta HP (2016) A robust watermarking framework for high efficiency video coding (HEVC)-encoded video with blind extraction process. J Vis Commun Image Represent 38:29–44

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. El’Arbi M, Koubaa M, Charfeddine M, Amar CB (2011) A dynamic video watermarking algorithm in fast motion areas in the wavelet domain. Multimed Tools Appl 55(3):579–600

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Faragallah OS (2013) Efficient video watermarking based on singular value decomposition in the discrete wavelet transform domain. AEU Int J Electron Commun 67(3):189–196

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Farri E, Ayubi P (2018) A blind and robust video watermarking based on IWT and new 3D generalized chaotic sine map. Nonlinear Dyn 93:1875–1897

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Hadi RM, Ayubi P (2012) Blind digital image watermarking based on CT-SVD and chaotic cellular automata. In: 2012 2nd international conference on computer and knowledge engineering (ICCKE). IEEE, pp 301–306

  35. Himeur Y, Boukabou A (2017) A robust and secure key-frames based video watermarking system using chaotic encryption. Multimed Tools Appl 77:8603–8627

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Inceoglu F (2015) Copyright protection and entry deterrence. Inf Econ Policy 32(Supplement C):38–45 big Media: Economics and Regulation of Digital Markets

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Irani BY, Ayubi P, Jabalkandi FA, Valandar MY, Barani MJ (2019) Digital image scrambling based on a new one-dimensional coupled sine map. Nonlinear Dyn 97(4):2693–2721

    MATH  Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Joshi AM, Gupta S, Girdhar M, Agarwal P, Sarker R (2017) Combined DWT–DCT-based video watermarking algorithm using Arnold transform technique, In: Proceedings of the international conference on data engineering and communication technology. Springer, pp 455–463

  39. Keyvanpour M, Merrikh-Bayat F (2011) An effective chaos-based image watermarking scheme using fractal coding. Procedia Comput Sci 3(Supplement C):89–95 world Conference on Information Technology

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Khalilian H, Bajic IV (2013) Video watermarking with empirical PCA-based decoding. IEEE Trans Image Process 22(12):4825–4840

    MathSciNet  MATH  Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Klema V, Laub A (1980) The singular value decomposition: its computation and some applications. IEEE Trans Autom Control 25(2):164–176

    MathSciNet  MATH  Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Kocarev L, Lian S (2011) Chaos-based cryptography: theory, algorithms and applications, vol 354. Springer, Berlin

    Google Scholar 

  43. L’Ecuyer P, Simard R (2007) Testu01: AC library for empirical testing of random number generators. ACM Trans Math Softw (TOMS) 33(4):22

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  44. Lee S-H (2014) DWT based coding dna watermarking for dna copyright protection. Inf Sci 273:263–286

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Li Y, Wang H-X (2019) Robust H.264/AVC video watermarking without intra distortion drift. Multimed Tools Appl 78(7):8535–8557

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Li Z, Chen X-W, Ma J (2015) Adaptively imperceptible video watermarking based on the local motion entropy. Multimed Tools Appl 74(8):2781–2802

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Li C, Yang R, Liu Z, Li J, Guo Z (2016) Semi-fragile self-recoverable watermarking scheme for face image protection. Comput Electr Eng 54(Supplement C):484–493

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Lin ZX, Peng F, Long M (2017) A reversible watermarking for authenticating 2d vector graphics based on bionic spider web. Sig Process Image Commun 57(Supplement C):134–146

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Liu Y, Zhao J (2010) A new video watermarking algorithm based on 1D DFT and radon transform. Sig Process 90(2):626–639

    MATH  Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Liu J, Wang Y, Li Y, Liu R, Chen J (2017) A robust and blind 3D watermarking algorithm using multiresolution adaptive parameterization of surface. Neurocomputing 237(Supplement C):304–315

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Loganathan A, Kaliyaperumal G (2016) An adaptive hvs based video watermarking scheme for multiple watermarks using bam neural networks and fuzzy inference system. Expert Syst Appl 63:412–434

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Makbol NM, Khoo BE, Rassem TH, Loukhaoukha K (2017) A new reliable optimized image watermarking scheme based on the integer wavelet transform and singular value decomposition for copyright protection. Inf Sci 417(Supplement C):381–400

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Marsaglia G (1998) Diehard test suite. http://www.stat.fsu.edu/pub/diehard/. Accessed 8 Jan 2014

  54. Mohammadi S (2015) A chaos-based video watermarking in wavelet domain. Ciência e Natura 37(6–2):364–370

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Moosazadeh M, Ekbatanifard G (2017) An improved robust image watermarking method using DCT and YCoCg-R color space. Optik Int J Light Electron Opt 140(Supplement C):975–988

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Panahi N, Amirani M, Behnia S, Ayubi P (2013) A new colour image watermarking scheme using cellular automata transform and Schur decomposition. In: 2013 21st Iranian conference on electrical engineering (ICEE). IEEE, pp 1–5

  57. Pereira S, Voloshynovskiy S, Madueno M, Marchand-Maillet S, Pun T (2001) Second generation benchmarking and application oriented evaluation. In: Moskowitz IS (ed) Information hiding. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 340–353

    Google Scholar 

  58. Renza D, Lemus DMBLC (2018) Authenticity verification of audio signals based on fragile watermarking for audio forensics. Expert Syst Appl 91(Supplement C):211–222

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Rukhin A, Soto J, Nechvatal J, Smid M, Barker E (2001) A statistical test suite for random and pseudorandom number generators for cryptographic applications. Technical Report, Booz-Allen and Hamilton Inc Mclean, VA

  60. Selvam P, Balachandran S, Iyer SP, Jayabal R (2017) Hybrid transform based reversible watermarking technique for medical images in telemedicine applications. Optik Int J Light Electron Opt 145(Supplement C):655–671

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Singh TR, Singh KM, Roy S (2013) Video watermarking scheme based on visual cryptography and scene change detection. AEU Int J Electron Commun 67(8):645–651

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Soliman MM, Hassanien AE, Onsi HM (2016) An adaptive watermarking approach based on weighted quantum particle swarm optimization. Neural Comput Appl 27(2):469–481

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Stirmark benchmark 4.0 (1997). https://www.petitcolas.net/watermarking/stirmark/

  64. Strogatz SH (2014) Nonlinear dynamics and chaos: with applications to physics, biology, chemistry, and engineering. Westview Press, Boulder

    Google Scholar 

  65. Stütz T, Autrusseau F, Uhl A (2014) Non-blind structure-preserving substitution watermarking of H.264/CAVLC inter-frames. IEEE Trans Multimed 16(5):1337–1349

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Su Q, Chen B (2017) A novel blind color image watermarking using upper Hessenberg matrix. AEU Int J Electron Commun 78(Supplement C):64–71

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Su Q, Niu Y, Wang Q, Sheng G (2013) A blind color image watermarking based on DC component in the spatial domain. Optik Int J Light Electron Opt 124(23):6255–6260

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Sun Z, Liu J, Sun J, Sun X, Ling J (2009) A motion location based video watermarking scheme using ICA to extract dynamic frames. Neural Comput Appl 18(5):507–514

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Sun L, Xu J, Liu S, Zhang S, Li Y, Shen C (2018) A robust image watermarking scheme using Arnold transform and BP neural network. Neural Comput Appl 30:2425–2440

    Article  Google Scholar 

  70. Sundararajan D (2016) Discrete wavelet transform: a signal processing approach. Wiley, Hoboken

    Google Scholar 

  71. Tian L, Dai H, Li C (2019) A semi-fragile video watermarking algorithm based on chromatic residual DCT. Multimed Tools Appl 77:1759–1779

    Google Scholar 

  72. Valandar MY, Ayubi P, Barani MJ (2015) High secure digital image steganography based on 3D chaotic map. In: 2015 7th conference on information and knowledge technology (IKT). IEEE, pp 1–6

  73. Valandar MY, Ayubi P, Barani MJ (2017) A new transform domain steganography based on modified logistic chaotic map for color images. J Inf Secur Appl 34(Part 2):142–151

    Google Scholar 

  74. Valandar MY, Barani MJ, Ayubi P (2019a) A fast color image encryption technique based on three dimensional chaotic map. Optik 193:162921

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Valandar MY, Barani MJ, Ayubi P, Aghazadeh M (2019b) An integer wavelet transform image steganography method based on 3d sine chaotic map. Multimed Tools Appl 78(8):9971–9989

    Article  Google Scholar 

  76. Valandar MY, Barani MJ, Ayubi P (2020) A blind and robust color images watermarking method based on block transform and secured by modified 3-dimensional Hénon map. Soft Comput 24(2):771–794

    Article  Google Scholar 

  77. Video test media (2017). https://media.xiph.org/video/derf/

  78. Walker J (2008) ENT: a pseudorandom number sequence test program. Software and documentation. www.fourmilab.ch/random/S

  79. Wang X-Y, Yang H-Y, Zhang Y, Fu Z-K (2013) Image denoising using svm classification in nonsubsampled contourlet transform domain. Inf Sci 246:155–176

    MathSciNet  MATH  Article  Google Scholar 

  80. Wang X-Y, Liu Y-N, Li S, Yang H-Y, Niu P-P, Zhang Y (2015) A new robust digital watermarking using local polar harmonic transform. Comput Electr Eng 46:403–418

    Article  Google Scholar 

  81. Wu C, Zheng Y, Ip W, Chan C, Yung K, Lu Z (2011) A flexible H.264/AVC compressed video watermarking scheme using particle swarm optimization based dither modulation. AEU Int J Electron Commun 65(1):27–36

    Article  Google Scholar 

  82. Xu D-W, Wang R-d, Wang J-c (2010) Low complexity video watermarking algorithm by exploiting CAVLC in H.264/AVC. In: 2010 IEEE international conference on wireless communications, networking and information security (WCNIS). IEEE, pp 411–415

  83. Yassin NI, Salem NM, El Adawy MI (2014) Qim blind video watermarking scheme based on wavelet transform and principal component analysis. Alex Eng J 53(4):833–842

    Article  Google Scholar 

  84. Youssef SM, ElFarag AA, Ghatwary NM (2014) Adaptive video watermarking integrating a fuzzy wavelet-based human visual system perceptual model. Multimed Tools Appl 73(3):1545–1573

    Article  Google Scholar 

  85. Yu M, Wang J, Jiang G, Peng Z, Shao F, Luo T (2015) New fragile watermarking method for stereo image authentication with localization and recovery. AEU Int J Electron Commun 69(1):361–370

    Article  Google Scholar 

  86. Zhang F, Zhang X, Shang D (2012) Digital watermarking algorithm based on kalman filtering and image fusion. Neural Comput Appl 21(6):1149–1157

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

I am dedicated to Imam Hussein, who has all my scientific life from his love. I am grateful to the editor-in-chief, the editors, and the esteemed reviewers who have contributed to the improvement of the quality of this article with careful and scientific comments. I would also like to express my special thanks to my dear students who helped me with the simulation and implementation of this article despite their graduation.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Peyman Ayubi.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors of this paper confirm that any part of this work was not published or submitted for publication elsewhere, and authors do not have any conflict of interest with anybody else.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ayubi, P., Jafari Barani, M., Yousefi Valandar, M. et al. A new chaotic complex map for robust video watermarking. Artif Intell Rev 54, 1237–1280 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10462-020-09877-8

Download citation

Keywords

  • Blind and robust video watermarking
  • Chaotic complex map
  • IWT
  • DWT
  • CT
  • SVD