Neighborhood Poverty and Control of HIV, Hypertension, and Diabetes in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study


Neighborhoods with high poverty rates have limited resources to support residents’ health. Using census data, we calculated the proportion of each Women’s Interagency HIV Study participant’s census tract (neighborhood) living below the poverty line. We assessed associations between neighborhood poverty and (1) unsuppressed viral load [VL] in HIV-seropositive women, (2) uncontrolled blood pressure among HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative hypertensive women, and (3) uncontrolled diabetes among HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative diabetic women using modified Poisson regression models. Neighborhood poverty was associated with unsuppressed VL in HIV-seropositive women (> 40% versus ≤ 20% poverty adjusted prevalence ratio (PR), 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04–1.92). In HIV-seronegative diabetic women, moderate neighborhood poverty was associated with uncontrolled diabetes (20–40% versus ≤ 20% poverty adjusted PR, 1.75; 95% CI 1.02–2.98). Neighborhood poverty was associated with neither uncontrolled diabetes among HIV-seropositive diabetic women, nor uncontrolled hypertension in hypertensive women, regardless of HIV status. Women living in areas with concentrated poverty may need additional resources to control health conditions effectively.

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Data in this manuscript were collected by the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). The contents of this publication are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). WIHS (Principal Investigators): UAB-MS WIHS (Mirjam-Colette Kempf and Deborah Konkle-Parker), U01-AI-103401; Atlanta WIHS (Ighovwerha Ofotokun, Anandi, Sheth, and Gina Wingood), U01-AI-103408; Bronx WIHS (Kathryn Anastos and Anjali Sharma), U01-AI-035004; Brooklyn WIHS (Deborah Gustafson and Tracey Wilson), U01-AI-031834; Chicago WIHS (Mardge Cohen and Audrey French), U01-AI-034993; Metropolitan Washington WIHS (Seble Kassaye and Daniel Merenstein), U01-AI-034994; Miami WIHS (Maria Alcaide, Margaret Fischl, and Deborah Jones), U01-AI-103397; UNC WIHS (Adaora Adimora), U01-AI-103390; Connie Wofsy Women’s HIV Study, Northern California (Bradley Aouizerat and Phyllis Tien), U01-AI-034989; WIHS Data Management and Analysis Center (Stephen Gange and Elizabeth Golub), U01-AI-042590; Southern California WIHS (Joel Milam), U01-HD-032632 (WIHS I–WIHS IV). The WIHS is funded primarily by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), with additional co-funding from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), and the National Institute on Mental Health (NIMH). Targeted supplemental funding for specific projects is also provided by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), the National Institute on Deafness and other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), and the NIH Office of Research on Women’s Health. WIHS data collection is also supported by UL1-TR000004 (UCSF CTSA), UL1-TR000454 (Atlanta CTSA), P30-AI-050410 (UNC CFAR), and P30-AI-027767 (UAB CFAR).

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Cope, A.B., Edmonds, A., Ludema, C. et al. Neighborhood Poverty and Control of HIV, Hypertension, and Diabetes in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study. AIDS Behav 24, 2033–2044 (2020).

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  • Contextual poverty
  • Viral suppression
  • Blood pressure
  • Health disparity
  • Census tract