A Cross-Sectional Study of Depressive Symptoms and Risky Alcohol Use Behaviors Among HIV Primary Care Patients in New York City
An association between problem drinking and depression among HIV-infected individuals has been previously demonstrated; however, which specific risky drinking behaviors are associated with higher levels of depression has not yet been investigated. Using an adult sample of HIV-infected primary care patients (78% male, 94% Black or Hispanic), we investigated whether depressive symptoms are associated with various risky drinking behaviors. Participants were administered the Beck Depression Inventory-II to assess depressive symptoms, and the Alcohol Use Disorders and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-IV to evaluate alcohol involvement. Participants with depressive symptoms (26%) were at higher risk for alcohol dependence [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.8; 95% CI 2.0–7.2], regular binge drinking (AOR 2.0; 95% CI 1.1–3.8), and regular daytime drinking (AOR 2.1; 95% CI 1.2–3.8), in comparison with their non-depressed counterparts. Because both depression and unhealthy drinking negatively affect medication adherence and clinical outcomes, a better understanding of the association between depression and certain risky drinking behaviors among HIV-infected individuals is vital to improving their care and prognoses.
KeywordsAlcohol dependence Binge drinking Daytime drinking Depressive symptoms HIV
We thank Derek Maloney, MD, and Erin Delker, MPH for their editorial and statistical guidance.
This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) (Grant Nos. R01AA023163, R01AA014323, R01DA020647, K23AA023753) and the New York State Psychiatric Institute. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 4.Williams JB, Rabkin JG, Remien RH, Gorman JM, Ehrhardt AA. Multidisciplinary baseline assessment of homosexual men with and without human immunodeficiency virus infection. II. Standardized clinical assessment of current and lifetime psychopathology. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1991;48(2):124–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 37.First MB, Spitzer RL, Gibbon M, Williams JBW. Structured clinical interview for DSM-IV axis I disorders, research version, non-patient edition (SCID-I/NP). New York: Biometrics Research, New York State Psychiatric Institute; 2002.Google Scholar
- 38.Beck AT, Steer RA, Brown GK. Manual for the Beck Depression Inventory-II. San Antonio: Psychological Corporation; 1996.Google Scholar
- 39.Reitan R, Wolfson D. The Halstead–Reitan neuropsychological test battery: theory and clinical interpretation. 2nd ed. Tucson: Neuropsychology Press; 1992.Google Scholar
- 40.Brantley PJ, Dutton GR, Wood KB. The Beck Depression Inventory—II (BDI–II) and the Beck Depression Inventory—primary care (BDI–PC). In: Maruish ME, editor. The use of psychological testing for treatment planning and assessment outcome. 3rd ed. Mahwah: Erlbaum; 2004. p. 313–26.Google Scholar
- 42.Dozois DJA, Covin R. The Beck Depression Inventory-II, beck hopelessness scale, and beck scale for suicide ideation. In: Hersen M, Segal DL, Hilsenroth M, editors. Comprehensive handbook of psychological assessment, personality assessment, vol. 2. Hoboken: Wiley; 2004.Google Scholar
- 45.Arbisi PA. Review of the Beck Depression Inventory-II. In: Plake BS, Impara JC, editors. The fourteenth mental measurements yearbook. Lincoln: Buros Institute of Mental Measurements; 2001.Google Scholar
- 48.Grant BF, Dawson DA, Hasin DS. The Alcohol use disorder and associated disabilities interview schedule-DSM-IV version. Bethesda: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; 2001.Google Scholar
- 49.National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Drinking levels defined. https://www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol-consumption/moderate-binge-drinking.
- 53.Grant BF, Dawson DA, Stinson FS, Chou PS, Kay W, Pickering R. The alcohol use disorder and associated disabilities interview schedule-IV (AUDADIS-IV): reliability of alcohol consumption, tobacco use, family history of depression and psychiatric diagnostic modules in a general population sample. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2003;71(1):7–16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 55.SAS Institute Inc. SAS/STAT® software, Version 9.3. 2011.Google Scholar