AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 22, Issue 5, pp 1503–1516 | Cite as

HIV Prevalence Among Hospitalized Patients at the Main Psychiatric Referral Hospital in Botswana

  • Philip R. Opondo
  • Ari R. Ho-Foster
  • James Ayugi
  • Bechedza Hatitchki
  • Margo Pumar
  • Warren B. Bilker
  • Michael E. Thase
  • John B. JemmottIII
  • Michael B. Blank
  • Dwight L. Evans
Original Paper


We examined HIV prevalence among patients 18–49 year olds admitted to a psychiatric hospital in Botswana in 2011 and 2012. The retrospective study analyzed females (F) and males (M) separately, comparing proportions with Chi square test and continuous variables with Wilcoxon rank-sum test, assessing significance at the 5% level. HIV seroprevalence among hospitalized psychiatric patients was much more common among females (53%) compared with males (19%) (p < 0.001). These women also appeared more vulnerable to infection compared with females in the general population (29%) (p < 0.017). Among both women and men, HIV-infection appeared most common among patients with organic mental disorders (F:68%, M:41%) and neurotic, stress related and somatoform disorders (F:68%, M:42%). The largest proportion of HIV infections co-occurred among patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizotypal and other psychotic disorders (F:48%; M:55%), mood (affective) disorders (F:21%; M:16%) and neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders (F:16%; M:20%). Interventions addressing both mental health and HIV among women and men require development.


HIV/AIDS Mental health Psychiatry Hospitalized Gender 



This study would not have been possible without the support of Veronica Moswang (SPH Medical Records) and Ontiretse Sickboy. The authors acknowledge the support of several NIH-funded programs: funding and core services support from the Penn Mental Health AIDS Research Centre (P30MH097488), and additional support from the Penn Center for AIDS Research (P30AI045008).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. For this type of study formal consent is not required.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Philip R. Opondo
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ari R. Ho-Foster
    • 3
    • 4
  • James Ayugi
    • 1
  • Bechedza Hatitchki
    • 1
  • Margo Pumar
    • 1
    • 3
  • Warren B. Bilker
    • 2
    • 5
  • Michael E. Thase
    • 2
  • John B. JemmottIII
    • 2
    • 3
    • 6
  • Michael B. Blank
    • 2
    • 3
  • Dwight L. Evans
    • 2
    • 4
    • 7
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of BotswanaGaboroneBotswana
  2. 2.Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of MedicineUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  3. 3.Botswana-UPenn PartnershipGaboroneBotswana
  4. 4.Department of Medicine, Perelman School of MedicineUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  5. 5.Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Perelman School of MedicineUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  6. 6.Annenberg School for CommunicationUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  7. 7.Department of Neuroscience, Perelman School of MedicineUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

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