HIV Positive Diagnosis During Pregnancy Increases Risk of IPV Postpartum Among Women with No History of IPV in Their Relationship
There has been limited study of whether and for whom physical intimate partner violence (IPV) is a consequence of an HIV-positive diagnosis. Per the diathesis stress model, the consequences of HIV infection may be worse for women with a history of IPV. We hypothesize that the positive association between HIV diagnosis in pregnancy and postpartum IPV will be exacerbated for women with a history of IPV. Data come from a prospective cohort study with 1015 participants who completed a baseline antenatal and 9-month postpartum visit. Using logistic regression analyses, we found a statistically significant interaction between HIV diagnosis, history of IPV and postpartum IPV (AOR: 0.40, 95% CI 0.17–0.96). The findings were in the opposite direction as expected: HIV-diagnosis was not associated with IPV for women with a history of IPV (AOR: 2.17, 95% CI 1.06, 4.42). However, HIV-positive women without a history of IPV faced more than two times the risk of incident postpartum IPV than HIV-negative women (AOR: 2.17, 95% CI 1.06, 4.42). Interventions to reduce incident and ongoing IPV during the perinatal period are needed.
KeywordsIntimate partner violence HIV Women Africa Prospective study
We thank all participants for their contributions to this study. We also thank study staff in South Africa for their work and dedication.
The data for this study comes from an intervention study sponsored by the U.S. National Institute of Health (R01HD050134), the Open Society Institute and the Elton John AIDS Foundation (20020472/20030878). Dr. Groves’ time was also supported by one additional grant from the U.S. National Institution of Health; specifically R03 HD089837-01; Allison Groves, Principal Investigator.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflicts of interest
There are no competing interests to declare.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- 27.World Health Organization. WHO multi-country study on women’s health and domestic violence against women: summary report of initial results on prevalence, health outcomes and women’s responses. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2005.Google Scholar
- 32.SAS. SAS version 9.4. Cary, NC: SAS Institute; 2009.Google Scholar
- 41.Lazarus RS. The stress and coping paradigm. In: Lazarus RS, editor. Fifty years of the research and theory of RS Lazarus: an analysis of historical and perennial Issues. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1998. p. 182–220.Google Scholar
- 42.Cohen S, Kessler RC, Gordon LU. Measuring stress: a guide for health and social scientists. New York: Oxford University Press; 1997.Google Scholar
- 48.Pallitto C, García-Moreno C, Stöeckl H, Hatcher A, MacPhail C, Mokoatle K, et al. Testing a counselling intervention in antenatal care for women experiencing partner violence: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial in Johannesburg, South Africa. BMC Health Serv Res. 2016;16(1):630.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 58.Murphy CC, Schei B, Myhr TL, Du Mont J. Abuse: a risk factor for low birth weight? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Can Med Assoc J. 2001;164(11):1567–72.Google Scholar