This article examines the experiences of female farmers in the Australian context who neither married into nor were born into farming and how they construct their farmer identity. Drawing on interviews with seventeen first generation female farmers it demonstrates a detraditionalized farmer identity created in response to concern for environmental and social sustainability. They are enabled by an online, global community of practice and shifting narratives of what constitutes responsible farming. Participants leveraged their skills from previous occupations to their farming enterprises to internalize a managerial and entrepreneurial farming identity. First generation female farmers have been empowered as new actors in Australian agriculture, reflecting a disruption in traditional patterns of gendered privilege.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Ahl, H. 2006. Why research on women entrepreneurs needs new directions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 30 (5): 595–621. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2006.00138.x.
Ahmed, N. 2014. UN: Only small farmers and agroecology can feed the world. https://permaculturenews.org/2014/09/26/un-small-farmers-agroecology-can-feed-world/. Accessed 1 March 2018.
Alston, M. 1995. Women on the land: The hidden heart of rural Australia. Kensington: UNSW Press.
Alston, M. 2000. Breaking through the grass ceiling: Women, power and leadership in rural organisations. London: Harwood Publishers.
Alston, M. 2003. Women in agriculture: The ‘new entrepreneurs.’ Australian Feminist Studies 18 (41): 163–171. https://doi.org/10.1080/08164640301726.
Alston, M. 2006. ‘I’d like to just walk out of here’: Australian women’s experience of drought. Sociologia Ruralis 46 (2): 154–170. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9523.2006.00409.x.
Alston, M. 2011. Gender and climate change in Australia. Journal of Sociology 47 (1): 53–70.
Alston, M., and K. Whittenbury. 2013. Does climatic crisis in Australia’s food bowl create a basis for change in agricultural gender relations? Agriculture and Human Values 30 (1): 115–128.
Alston, M., J. Clarke, and K. Whittenbury. 2017. Gender relations, livelihood strategies, water policies and structural adjustment in the Australian dairy industry. Sociologia Ruralis 57 (S1): 752–768. https://doi.org/10.1111/soru.12164.
Alston, M., J. Clarke, and K. Whittenbury. 2018. Contemporary feminist analysis of Australian farm women in the context of climate changes. Social Sciences 7 (2): 16. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7020016.
Anderson, A.R., and L. Warren. 2011. The entrepreneur as hero and jester: Enacting the entrepreneurial discourse. International Small Business Journal 29 (6): 589–609. https://doi.org/10.1177/0266242611416417.
Armstead, C. 1995. Writing contradictions: Feminist research and feminist writing. Women’s Studies International Forum 18 (56): 627–636. https://doi.org/10.1016/0277-5395(95)00084-4.
Baker, P. 1998. Hearing and writing women’s voices. Resources for Feminist Research/Documentation sur la Recherche Feministe 26 (1–2): 31–53.
Barclay, E., R. Foskey, and I. Reeve. 2007. Farm succession and inheritance: Comparing Australian and international trends. Barton A C T: Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation.
Beck, U. 1992a. How modern is modern society? Theory, Culture and Society 9: 163–169.
Beck, U. 1992b. Risk society: Towards a new modernity. London: Sage.
Beck, U. 1994a. The reinvention of politics: Towards a theory of reflexive modernization. In Reflexive modernization – politics, tradition and aesthetics in the modern social order, ed. U. Beck, A. Giddens, and S. Lash, 1–23. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.
Beck, U. 1994b. Self-dissolution and self-endangerment of industrial society: What does this mean? In Reflexive modernization– politics, tradition and aesthetics in the modern social order, ed. U. Beck, A. Giddens, and S. Lash, 174–183. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.
Bell, C., and H. Newby. 1974. Capitalist farmers in the British class structure. Sociologia Ruralis 14: 86–107.
Bennett, K. 2006. Kitchen drama: Performances, patriarchy and power dynamics in a Dorset farmhouse kitchen. Gender, Place & Culture 13 (2): 153–160. https://doi.org/10.1080/09663690600573775.
Beus, C.E., and R.E. Dunlap. 1990. Conventional versus alternative agriculture: The paradigmatic roots of the debate. Rural Sociology 55 (4): 590–616. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1549-0831.1990.tb00699.x.
Bock, B.B., and S. Shortall. 2006. Rural gender relations: Issues and case studies. Wallingford: CABI.
Boonstra, W.J., J. Ahnström, and L. Hallgren. 2011. Swedish farmers talking about nature – A study of the interrelations between farmers’ values and the sociocultural notion of naturintresse. Sociologia Ruralis 51 (4): 420–435. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9523.2011.00547.x.
Boult, C., and W. Chancellor. 2019. Agricultural productivity estimates. http://www.agriculture.gov.au/abares/research-topics/productivity/agricultural-productivity-estimates#download-the-full-report. Accessed 17 October 2019.
Bowler, I.R. 1992. The industrialisation of agriculture. In The geography of agriculture in developed market economies, ed. I.R. Bowler, 7–31. Essex: Longman.
Brandth, B. 2002. Gender identity in European family farming: A literature review. Sociologia Ruralis 42 (3): 181–200.
Brandth, B., and M.S. Haugen. 2010. Doing farm tourism: The intertwining practices of gender and work. Signs 35 (2): 425–446. https://doi.org/10.1086/605480.
Brasier, K., C. Sachs, N. Kiernan, A. Trauger, and M. Barbercheck. 2014. Capturing the multiple and shifting identities of farm women in the Northeastern United States. Rural Sociology 79 (3): 283–309. https://doi.org/10.1111/ruso.12040.
Braun, V., and V. Clarke. 2012. Thematic analysis. In APA handbook of research methods in psychology research designs: Quantitative, qualitative, neuropsychological, and biological, ed. H. Cooper, P.M. Camic, D.L. Long, A.T. Panter, D. Rindskopf, and K.J. Sher, 57–71. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Bryant, L. 1999. The detraditionalization of occupational identities in farming in South Australia. Sociologia Ruralis 39 (2): 236–261. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9523.00104.
Bryant, L., and B. Pini. 2006. Towards an understanding of gender and capital in constituting biotechnologies in agriculture. Sociologia Ruralis 46 (4): 261–279. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9523.2006.00417.x.
Bryant, L., and B. Pini. 2011. Gender and rurality. New York: Routledge.
Burch, D., and G. Lawrence. 2005. Supermarket own brands, supply chains and the transformation of the agri-food system. International Journal of Sociology of Agriculture and Food 13 (1): 1–18.
Burton, R.J.F., and G.A. Wilson. 2006. Injecting social psychology theory into conceptualisations of agricultural agency: Towards a post-productivist farmer self-identity? Journal of Rural Studies 22 (1): 95–115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2005.07.004.
Campbell, H., M. Bell, M. Finney, and C. Vagnetti. 2006. Country boys: Masculinity and rural life. University Park, PA.: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Carolan, M. 2018. Lands changing hands: Experiences of succession and farm (knowledge) acquisition among first-generation, multigenerational, and aspiring farmers. Land Use Policy 79: 179–189. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2018.08.011.
Cast, A.D., and P.J. Burke. 2002. A theory of self-esteem. Social Forces 80 (3): 1041–1068. https://doi.org/10.1353/sof.2002.0003.
Cerulo, K.A. 1997. Identity construction: New issues, new directions. Annual Review of Sociology 23 (1): 385–409. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.23.1.385.
Chiappe, M.B., and C. Butler Flora. 1998. Gendered elements of the alternative agriculture paradigm. Rural Sociology 63 (3): 372–393. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1549-0831.1998.tb00684.x.
Clarke, J.H., and J.E. Newman. 1997. The managerial state: Power, politics and ideology in the remaking of social welfare. London: Sage Publications.
Connell, R.W. 1987. Gender and power: Society, the person and sexual politics. Sydney: Allen & Unwin.
Creswell, J.W. 2006. Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Deloitte. 2019. Future of food: How technology and global trends are transforming the food industry. https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/au/Documents/Economics/deloitte-au-economics-future-food-uber-eats-100719.pdf. Accessed 27 July 2020.
Dibden, J., and C. Cocklin. 2005. Sustainability and change in rural Australia. Sydney: UNSW Press.
Dibden, J., and C. Cocklin. 2007. Contesting competition: Governance and farmer resistance in Australia. In Rural governance: International perspectives, ed. L. Cheshire, V. Higgins, and G. Lawrence, 175–190. Abingdon: Routledge.
Doody, O., and M. Noonan. 2013. Preparing and conducting interviews to collect data. Nurse Researcher 20 (5): 28–32. https://doi.org/10.7748/nr2013.05.20.5.28.e327.
Doyle, S. 2007. Member checking with older women: A framework for negotiating meaning. Health Care for Women International 28 (10): 888–908. https://doi.org/10.1080/07399330701615325.
Eaton, W.M., F.R. Eanes, J.D. Ulrich-Schad, M. Burnham, S.P. Church, J.G. Arbuckle, and J.E. Cross. 2019. Trouble with sense of place in working landscapes. Society & Natural Resources 32 (7): 827–840.
Etikan, I., S.A. Musa, and R.S. Alkassim. 2016. Comparison of convenience sampling and purposive sampling. American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics 5 (1): 1–4.
Felshin, J. 1974. The triple option … For women in sport. Quest (National Association for Kinesiology in Higher Education) 21 (1): 36–40. https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.1974.10519789.
Finan, A. 2011. For the love of goats: The advantages of alterity. Journal of the Agriculture, Food, and Human Values Society 28 (1): 81–96. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10460-010-9284-8.
Foucault, M. 1972. The archaeology of knowledge. London: Tavistock.
Foucault, M. 1980. The history of sexuality,vol.1, an introduction. New York: Vintage Books.
Foucault, M. 1990. The care of the self. London: Penguin.
Foucault, M. 1994. Two lectures. In Culture, power, history: A reader in contemporary social theory, ed. G. Eley Dirks and S.B. Ortner, 200–221. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Foucault, M. 1995. Discipline and punish: The birth of the prison. New York: Vintage Books.
Francis, C.A., and G. Youngberg. 1990. Sustainable agriculture- an overview. In Sustainable agriculture in temperate zones, ed. C.A. Francis, C. Butler Flora, and L.D. King, 1–23. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Fulton, A., and F. Vanclay. 2011. Enabling change in family farm businesses. In Changing land management: Adoption of new practices by rural landholders, ed. D. Pannell and F. Vanclay, 95–106. Collingwood: CSIRO.
Gasson, R., and A. Errington. 1993. The farm family business. Wallingford, Oxon: CAB International.
Giddens, A. 1991. Modernity and self-identity: Self and society in the late modern age. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.
Giddens, A. 1994a. Living in a post-traditional society. In Reflexive modernization – politics, tradition and aesthetics in the modern social order, ed. U. Beck, A. Giddens, and S. Lash, 56–110. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.
Giddens, A. 1994b. Risk, trust, reflexivity. In Reflexive modernization – politics, tradition and aesthetics in the modern social order, ed. U. Beck, A. Giddens, and S. Lash, 184–197. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.
Giddens, A. 1997. Modernity and self-identity: Self and society in the late modern age. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Goodman, D., and M.K. Goodman. 2009. Alternative food networks. In International encyclopedia of human geography, ed. R. Kitchin and N. Thrift, 208–220. Oxford: Elsevier.
Gray, I., and G. Lawrence. 2001. A future for reginal Australia escaping global misfortune. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Haggis, J., and S. Schech. 2000. Meaning well and global good manners: Reflections on white Western feminist cross-cultural praxis. Australian Feminist Studies 15 (33): 387–399. https://doi.org/10.1080/713611987.
Hall, S. 1996. Introduction: Who needs identity? In Questions of cultural identity, ed. S. Hall and P. du Gay, 1–17. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Hanson, S. 2009. Changing places through women’s entrepreneurship. Economic Geography 85 (3): 245–267. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-8287.2009.01033.x.
Hay, R., and P. Pearce. 2014. Technology adoption by rural women in Queensland, Australia: Women driving technology from the homestead for the paddock. Journal of Rural Studies 36: 318–327. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2014.10.002.
Holstein, J.A., and J.F. Gubrium. 2000. The self in a world of going concerns. Symbolic Interaction 23 (2): 95–115. https://doi.org/10.1525/si.2000.23.2.95.
Ilbery, B., and I.R. Bowler. 1998. From agricultural productivism to post-productivism. In The geography of rural change, ed. B. Ilbery, 57–84. London: Longman.
Jansson, A., and M. Andersson. 2012. Mediatization at the margins: Cosmopolitanism, network capital and spatial transformation in rural Sweden. Communications 37 (2): 173–194.
Jenkins, R. 1996. Social identity. London: Routledge.
Kavada, A. 2012. Engagement, bonding, and identity across multiple platforms: Avaaz on Facebook, Youtube, and Myspace. MedieKultur: Journal of Media and Communication Research 28 (52): 28–48. https://doi.org/10.7146/mediekultur.v28i52.5486.
Keller, J. 2014. ‘I wanna have my own damn dairy farm!’: Women farmers, legibility, and femininities in rural Wisconsin, U S A. Journal of Rural Social Sciences 29 (1): 75–102.
Leslie, I.S., J. Wypler, and M.M. Bell. 2019. Relational agriculture: Gender, sexuality, and sustainability in U.S. farming. Society & Natural Resources 32 (8): 853–874. https://doi.org/10.1080/08941920.2019.1610626.
Liepins, R. 1998. ‘Women of broad vision’: Nature and gender in the environmental activism of Australia’s ‘women in agriculture’ movement. Environment and Planning A 30 (7): 1179–1196.
Liepins, R. 2000. Making men: The construction and representation of agriculture-based masculinities in Australia and New Zealand. Rural Sociology 65 (4): 605–620. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1549-0831.2000.tb00046.x.
Little, J. 2002. Gender and rural geography. Essex: Pearson.
Little, J., and P. Austin. 1996. Women and the rural idyll. Journal of Rural Studies 12 (2): 101–111. https://doi.org/10.1016/0743-0167(96)00004-6.
Lockie, S. 2015. Australia’s agricultural future: The social and political context. In Report to Saf07 – Australia’s agricultural future project. Melbourne: Australian Council of Learned Academies.
Lockie, S., and K. Lyons. 2001. Renegotiating gender and the symbolic transformation of Australian rural environments. International Journal of Sociology of Agriculture and Food 9 (1): 43–58.
Loseke, D., and J. Cavendish. 2001. Producing institutional selves: Rhetorically constructing the dignity of sexually marginalized Catholics. Social Psychology Quarterly 64 (4): 347–362. https://doi.org/10.2307/3090159.
Luhrs, D.E. 2016. Consider the daughters, They are important to family farms and rural communities too: Family-farm succession. Gender, Place and Culture 23 (8): 1078–1092. https://doi.org/10.1080/0966369X.2015.1090405.
Lundgren, A.S., and A. Johansson. 2017. Digital rurality: Producing the countryside in online struggles for rural survival. Journal of Rural Studies 51: 73–83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2017.02.001.
Lyson, T. 2004. Civic agriculture: Reconnecting farm, family and community. New York: University Press of New England.
Mailfert, K. 2006. New farmers and networks: How beginning farmers build social connections in France. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 98 (1): 21–31.
Marlow, S. 2014. Exploring future research agendas in the field of gender and entrepreneurship. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship 6 (2): 102–120. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJGE-01-2013-0003.
Mason-Schrock, D. 1996. Transsexuals’ narrative construction of the ‘true self.’ Social Psychology Quarterly 59 (3): 176–192. https://doi.org/10.2307/2787018.
Mayes, C. 2018. Unsettling food politics agriculture, dispossession and sovereignty in Australia. London: Rowman & Littlefield International.
McEachern, C. 1992. Farmers and conservation: Conflict and accommodation in farming politics. Journal of Rural Studies 8 (2): 159–171. https://doi.org/10.1016/0743-0167(92)90074-G.
McGuire, J., L. Morton, and A. Cast. 2013. Reconstructing the good farmer identity: Shifts in farmer identities and farm management practices to improve water quality. Journal of the Agriculture, Food, and Human Values Society 30 (1): 57–69. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10460-012-9381-y.
McManus, P., J. Walmsley, N. Argent, S. Baum, L. Bourke, J. Martin, B. Pritchard, and T. Sorensen. 2012. Rural community and rural resilience: What is important to farmers in keeping their country towns alive? Journal of Rural Studies 28 (1): 20–29.
Mead, G.H. 1934. Mind, self and society from the standpoint of a social behaviourist. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Michel-Guillou, E., and G. Moser. 2006. Commitment of farmers to environmental protection: From social pressure to environmental conscience. Journal of Environmental Psychology 26 (3): 227–235. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2006.07.004.
Milbourne, P. 1997. Revealing rural ‘others’: Representation, power and identity in the British countryside. London: Cassell.
Milone, P., and F. Ventura. 2019. New generation farmers: Rediscovering the peasantry. Journal of Rural Studies 65: 43–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2018.12.009.
Mondini, C., and P. Sequi. 2008. Implication of soil C sequestration on sustainable agriculture and environment. Waste Management 28 (4): 678–684. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2007.09.026.
Newsome, L. 2020. Beyond ‘get big or get out’: Female farmers’ responses to the cost-price squeeze of Australian agriculture. Journal of Rural Studies 79: 57–64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2020.08.040.
Ngo, M., and M. Brklacich. 2014. New farmers efforts to create a sense of place in rural communities: Insights from southern Ontario Canada. . Agriculture and Human Values 31 (1): 53–67.
Oldrup, H. 1999. Women working off the farm: Reconstructing gender identity in Danish agriculture. Sociologia Ruralis 39 (3): 343–358.
Australian Organic. 2019. Market report 2019. https://austorganic.com/awareness-around-organics-at-an-all-time-high-as-australians-seek-out-authentic-products/. Accessed 17 October 2019.
Peter, G., M.M. Bell, S. Jarnagin, and D. Bauer. 2000. Coming back across the fence: Masculinity and the transition to sustainable agriculture. Rural Sociology 65 (2): 215–233. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1549-0831.2000.tb00026.x.
Pilgeram, R. 2007. ‘Ass-kicking’ women: Doing and undoing gender in a US livestock auction. Gender, Work and Organization 14 (6): 572–595. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0432.2007.00372.x.
Pilgeram, R. 2011. ‘The only thing that isn’t sustainable … is the farmer’: Social sustainability and the politics of class among Pacific Northwest farmers engaged in sustainable farming. Rural Sociology 76 (3): 375–395. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1549-0831.2011.00051.x.
Pilgeram, R. 2019. ‘How much does property cost up there?’: Exploring the relationship between women, sustainable farming, and rural gentrification in the US. Society & Natural Resources 32 (8): 911–927. https://doi.org/10.1080/08941920.2018.1530818.
Pilgeram, R., and B. Amos. 2015. Beyond ‘inherit it or marry it’: Exploring how women engaged in sustainable agriculture access farmland. Rural Sociology 80 (1): 16–38. https://doi.org/10.1111/ruso.12054.
Pini, B. 2003. Feminist methodology and rural research: Reflections on a study of an Australian agricultural organisation. Sociologia Ruralis 43 (4): 418–433. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1467-9523.2003.00253.x.
Pini, B. 2004. Farm women and off-farm work: A study of the Queensland sugar industry. Labour & Industry 15 (1): 53–64.
Pini, B. 2005. The third sex: Women leaders in Australian agriculture. Gender, Work and Organization 12 (1): 73–88.
Pini, B. 2007. Always an outlaw: Daughters-in-law on Australian family farms. Women’s Studies International Forum 30 (1): 40–47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wsif.2006.12.008.
Radu, M., and R. Redien-Collot. 2008. The social representation of entrepreneurs in the French press: Desirable and feasible models? International Small Business Journal 26 (3): 259–298. https://doi.org/10.1177/0266242608088739.
Ruoso, L.-E. 2020. Can land-based and practice-based place identities explain farmers adaptation strategies in peri-urban areas? A case study of Metropolitan Sydney Australia. . Agriculture and Human Values 37 (3): 743–759. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10460-019-10009-4.
Sachs, C., and M. Alston. 2010. Global shifts, sedimentations, and imaginaries: An introduction to the special issue on women and agriculture. Signs 35 (2): 277–287. https://doi.org/10.1086/605618.
Sachs, C., M. Barbercheck, K. Braiser, N.E. Kiernan, and A.R. Terman. 2016. The rise of women farmers and sustainable agriculture. Iowa City, IA: University of Iowa Press.
Sattler Weber, S. 2007. Saving St. James: A case study of farmwomen entrepreneurs. Journal of the Agriculture, Food, and Human Values Society 24 (4): 425–434. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10460-007-9091-z.
Sayer, L. 2005. Gender, time and inequality: Trends in women’s and men’s paid work, unpaid work and free time. Social Forces 84 (1): 285–303.
Schoon, B., and R. te Grotenhuis. 2000. Values of farmers, sustainability and agricultural policy. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 12 (1): 17–27. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009543907661.
Seabrook, M.F., and C.B.R. Higgins. 1988. The role of the farmer’s self-concept in determining farmer behaviour. Agricultural Administration and Extension 30 (2): 99–108. https://doi.org/10.1016/0269-7475(88)90119-5.
Sheridan, A., and F. Haslam McKenzie. 2009. Revisiting missed opportunities. Barton, ACT: RIRDC.
Shisler, R.C., and J. Sbicca. 2019. Agriculture as carework: The contradictions of performing femininity in a male-dominated occupation. Society & Natural Resources 32 (8): 875–892.
Shucksmith, M., and K. Ranningen. 2011. The uplands after neoliberalism? The role of the small farm in rural sustainability. Journal of Rural Studies 27 (3): 275–287. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2011.03.003.
Smyth, J.D., A. Swendener, and E. Kazyak. 2018. Women’s work? The relationship between farm work and gender self-perception. Rural Sociology 83 (3): 654–676. https://doi.org/10.1111/ruso.12207.
Spencer, S. 2016. Understanding food markets outside retail Part 2: Trends shaping foodservice. Wagga: Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation.
Stets, J.E., and P.J. Burke. 2000. Identity theory and social identity theory. Social Psychology Quarterly 63 (3): 224–237. https://doi.org/10.2307/2695870.
Trauger, A. 2004. ‘Because they can do the work’: Women farmers in sustainable agriculture in Pennsylvania, USA. Gender, Place & Culture 11 (2): 289–307. https://doi.org/10.1080/0966369042000218491.
Trauger, A., C. Sachs, M. Barbercheck, N. Kiernan, K. Brasier, and J. Findeis. 2008. Agricultural education: Gender identity and knowledge exchange. Journal of Rural Studies 24 (4): 432–439. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2008.03.007.
Trauger, A., C. Sachs, M. Barbercheck, K. Brasier, and N. Kiernan. 2010. ‘Our market is our community’: Women farmers and civic agriculture in Pennsylvania, USA. Journal of the Agriculture, Food, and Human Values Society 27 (1): 43–55. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10460-008-9190-5.
Valenzuela, S. 2013. Unpacking the use of social media for protest behavior: The roles of information, opinion expression, and activism. American Behavioral Scientist 57 (7): 920–942. https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764213479375.
van der Ploeg, J.D. 2008. The new peasantries: Struggles for autonomy and sustainability in an era of empire and globalisation. London: Earthscan.
Vanclay, F. 2004. Social principles for agricultural extension to assist in the promotion of natural resource management. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 44 (3): 213–222.
Voyce, M. 2007. Property and the governance of the family farm in rural Australia. Journal of Sociology 43 (2): 131–150. https://doi.org/10.1177/1440783307076892.
The author thanks three anonymous reviewers, Professor Alison Sheridan and Ms Emma Hollows for their feedback on drafts of this article.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Newsome, L. Disrupted gender roles in Australian agriculture: first generation female farmers’ construction of farming identity. Agric Hum Values (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10460-021-10192-3
- Sustainable agriculture
- Productivist agriculture
- First generation farmers