Advertisement

Agroforestry Systems

, Volume 92, Issue 1, pp 35–46 | Cite as

Microbial communities and residues in robinia- and poplar-based alley-cropping systems under organic and integrated management

  • Hanyin Sun
  • Philipp Koal
  • Georg Gerl
  • Reiner Schroll
  • Andreas Gattinger
  • Rainer Georg Joergensen
  • Jean Charles Munch
Article

Abstract

Organic farming and agroforestry are considered as sustainable alternative agricultural practices for intensive agriculture. In a long-term field trial in Scheyern Germany, we evaluated the effects of 21-year organic farming and 4-year agroforestry (robinia and poplar) on microbial community and microbial residues. Microbial biomass and microbial community were determined by fumigation–extraction method and the analysis of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), respectively. Microbial residues were evaluated by the measurement of amino sugars. The results showed that organic farming had significantly positive effect on soil organic carbon (SOC) but that it tended to decrease microbial biomass C (MBC), PLFA functional guilds, muramic acid (MurN), and glucosamine (GlcN). Robinia system, however, significantly increased SOC and had the potential to enhance MBC, PLFA functional guilds especially Gram (+), but it tended to decrease MurN and GlcN, in comparison with poplar system. The hedgerow tree did not show significantly positive effect on SOC and microbial properties except the abundance of fungi and Gram (+) bacterial, after 4-year establishment period. The principal component analysis of the PLFA profile showed that in comparison with other investigated treatments, robinia system under organic farming had significantly a different microbial community structure. It also indicated tree species-specific effect on microbial community in the organic farming was stronger than that in the integrated farming. In summary, the short-term introduction of trees into an existing agricultural system will not substantially change the microbial biomass, but it has certain influence on the abundance of specific microbial groups in the hedgerow. Although organic farming did not show positive effect on overall microbial indices, we still see positive effect on SOC after 21-year organic farming and its additive effect with robinia on SOC in current study. We expect that alley-cropping agroforestry system that combines organic farming and robinia hedgerow has a great potential for sequestering SOC and developing sustainable agroecosystems with time.

Keywords

Organic farming Agroforestry Poplar Robinia Microbial community Microbial residue 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Adolphe Munyangabe and Gabriele Dormann for their help in the sample analysis, and the anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments. Han Yin Sun was funded by the Chinese Scholarship Council (CSC) and Helmholtz Zentrum München.

Supplementary material

10457_2016_9_MOESM1_ESM.docx (19 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 18 kb)

References

  1. Andersen R, Grasset L, Thormann MN, Rochefort L, Francez AJ (2010) Changes in microbial community structure and function following Sphagnum peatland restoration. Soil Biol Biochem 42:291–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Appuhn A, Joergensen RG (2006) Microbial colonisation of roots as a function of plant species. Soil Biol Biochem 38:1040–1051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Appuhn A, Joergensen RG, Raubuch M, Scheller E, Wilke B (2004) The automated determination of glucosamine, galactosamine, muramic acid, and mannosamine in soil and root hydrolysates by HPLC. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 167:17–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bardhan S, Jose S, Udawatta RP, Fritschi F (2013) Microbial community diversity in a 21-year-old temperate alley cropping system. Agroforest Syst 87:1031–1041CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Burrows RL (2014) Glomalin production and infectivity of arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi in response to grassland plant diversity Am J. Plant Sci 05:103–111Google Scholar
  6. Colaco A, Desbruyeres D, Guezennec J (2007) Polar lipid fatty acids as indicators of trophic associations in a deep-sea vent system community. Mar Ecol Evol Perspect 28:15–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Davidson EA et al (2002) Belowground carbon allocation in forests estimated from litterfall and IRGA-based soil respiration measurements. Agric For Meteorol 113:39–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Engelking B, Flessa H, Joergensen RG (2007) Shifts in amino sugar and ergosterol contents after addition of sucrose and cellulose to soil. Soil Biol Biochem 39:2111–2118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Esperschütz J, Gattinger A, Mäder P, Schloter M, Fliessbach A (2007) Response of soil microbial biomass and community structures to conventional and organic farming systems under identical crop rotations. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 61:26–37CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Fließbach A, Oberholzer H-R, Gunst L, Mäder P (2007) Soil organic matter and biological soil quality indicators after 21 years of organic and conventional farming. Agric Ecosyst Environ 118:273–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Frostegård A, Bååth E (1996) The use of phospholipid fatty acid analysis to estimate bacterial and fungal biomass in soil. Biol Fertil Soils 22:59–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gattinger A, Ruser R, Schloter M, Munch JC (2002) Microbial community structure varies in different soil zones of a potato field. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 165:421–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gattinger A et al (2012) Enhanced top soil carbon stocks under organic farming. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:18226–18231CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Gupta N, Kukal SS, Bawa SS, Dhaliwal GS (2009) Soil organic carbon and aggregation under poplar based agroforestry system in relation to tree age and soil type. Agroforest Syst 76:27–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Habekost M, Eisenhauer N, Scheu S, Steinbeiss S, Weigelt A, Gleixner G (2008) Seasonal changes in the soil microbial community in a grassland plant diversity gradient four years after establishment. Soil Biol Biochem 40:2588–2595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Indorf C, Dyckmans J, Khan KS, Joergensen RG (2011) Optimisation of amino sugar quantification by HPLC in soil and plant hydrolysates. Biol Fertil Soils 47:387–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Joergensen R (1995) The fumigation-extraction method to estimate soil microbial biomass: extraction with 0.01 M CaCl2. Agribiol Res 48:3–4Google Scholar
  18. Joergensen RG (1996) The fumigation-extraction method to estimate soil microbial biomass: calibration of the k EC value. Soil Biol Biochem 28:25–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Joergensen RG, Mueller T (1996) The fumigation-extraction method to estimate soil microbial biomass: calibration of the k EN value. Soil Biol Biochem 28:33–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Joergensen RG, Wichern F (2008) Quantitative assessment of the fungal contribution to microbial tissue in soil. Soil Biol Biochem 40:2977–2991CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Joergensen RG, Wu JS, Brookes PC (2011) Measuring soil microbial biomass using an automated procedure. Soil Biol Biochem 43:873–876CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kaleeem Abbasi M, Mahmood Tahir M, Sabir N, Khurshid M (2015) Impact of the addition of different plant residues on nitrogen mineralization-immobilization turnover and carbon content of a soil incubated under laboratory conditions. Solid Earth 6:197–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kaur B, Gupta SR, Singh G (2000) Soil carbon, microbial activity and nitrogen availability in agroforestry systems on moderately alkaline soils in northern India. Appl Soil Ecol 15:283–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Koelbl A, Kögel-Knabner I (2004) Content and composition of free and occluded particulate organic matter in a differently textured arable Cambisol as revealed by solid-state (13)C NMR spectroscopy. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 167:45–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kuntz M, Berner A, Gattinger A, Scholberg JM, Mader P, Pfiffner L (2013) Influence of reduced tillage on earthworm and microbial communities under organic arable farming. Pedobiologia 56:251–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Liang C, Fujinuma R, Wei LP, Balser TC (2007) Tree species-specific effects on soil microbial residues in an upper Michigan old-growth forest system. Forestry 80:65–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lipiec J, Kuś J, Słowińska-Jurkiewicz A, Nosalewicz A (2006) Soil porosity and water infiltration as influenced by tillage methods. Soil Tillage Res 89:210–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lorenz K, Lal R (2014) Soil organic carbon sequestration in agroforestry systems. A review. Agron Sustain Dev 34:443–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ludwig M, Achtenhagen J, Miltner A, Eckhardt KU, Leinweber P, Emmerling C, Thiele-Bruhn S (2015) Microbial contribution to SOM quantity and quality in density fractions of temperate arable soils. Soil Biol Biochem 81:311–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mäder P, Fliessbach A, Dubois D, Gunst L, Fried P, Niggli U (2002) Soil fertility and biodiversity in organic farming. Science 296:1694–1697CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Marriott EE, Wander MM (2006) Total and labile soil organic matter in organic and conventional farming systems. Soil Sci Soc Am J 70:950–959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Medinski TV, Freese D, Böhm C (2015) Soil CO2 flux in an alley-cropping system composed of black locust and poplar trees, Germany. Agroforest Syst 89:267–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Monokrousos N, Papatheodorou EM, Stamou GP (2008) The response of soil biochemical variables to organic and conventional cultivation of Asparagus sp. Soil Biol Biochem 40:198–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Muñoz C, Zagal E, Ovalle C (2007) Influence of trees on soil organic matter in Mediterranean agroforestry systems: an example from the ‘Espinal’ of central Chile. Eur J Soil Sci 58:728–735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Murugan R, Koch H-J, Joergensen RG (2014) Long-term influence of different tillage intensities on soil microbial biomass, residues and community structure at different depths. Biol Fertil Soils 50:487–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Nair PKR, Nair VD, Kumar BM, Showalter JM (2010) Carbon sequestration in agroforestry systems. Adv Agron 108:237–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Nii-Annang S, Grünewald H, Freese D, Hüttl RF, Dilly O (2009) Microbial activity, organic C accumulation and 13C abundance in soils under alley cropping systems after 9 years of recultivation of quaternary deposits. Biol Fertil Soils 45:531–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Oksanen J, Blanchet FG, Roeland K, Legendre P, Minchin PR, O’Hara RB, Peter Solymos GLS, Stevens MHH, Wagner H (2015) Vegan: community ecology package. R package version 2.3-0. http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=vegan
  39. Olsson PA, Bååth E, Jakobsen I, Söderström B (1995) The use of phospholipid and neutral lipid fatty acids to estimate biomass of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in soil. Mycol Res 99:623–629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. R Core Team (2015) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. http://www.R-project.org/
  41. Raich JW, Clark DA, Schwendenmann L, Wood TE (2014) Aboveground tree growth varies with belowground Carbon allocation in a tropical rainforest environment. Plos One 9:e100275CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Rillig M, Wright S, Eviner V (2002) The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and glomalin in soil aggregation: comparing effects of five plant species. Plant Soil 238:325–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Schröder P, Huber B, Olazabal U, Kammerer A, Munch JC (2002) Land use and sustainability: FAM research network on agroecosystems. Geoderma 105:155–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Six J, Frey SD, Thiet RK, Batten KM (2006) Bacterial and fungal contributions to carbon sequestration in agroecosystems. Soil Sci Soc Am J 70:555–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Thoms C, Gleixner G (2013) Seasonal differences in tree species’ influence on soil microbial communities. Soil Biol Biochem 66:239–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Thoms C, Gattinger A, Jacob M, Thomas FM, Gleixner G (2010) Direct and indirect effects of tree diversity drive soil microbial diversity in temperate deciduous forest. Soil Biol Biochem 42:1558–1565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Udawatta RP, Kremer RJ, Garrett HE, Anderson SH (2009) Soil enzyme activities and physical properties in a watershed managed under agroforestry and row-crop systems. Agric Ecosyst Environ 131:98–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Udawatta RP, Kremer RJ, Nelson KA, Jose S, Bardhan S (2014) Soil quality of a mature alley cropping agroforestry system in temperate north America. Commun Soil Sci Plan 45:2539–2551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Unger IM, Goyne KW, Kremer RJ, Kennedy AC (2013) Microbial community diversity in agroforestry and grass vegetative filter strips. Agroforest Syst 87:395–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Vance ED, Brookes PC, Jenkinson DS (1987) An extraction method for measuring soil microbial biomass C. Soil Biol Biochem 19:703–707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wright SF, Upadhyaya A (1996) Extraction of an abundant and unusual protein from soil and comparison with hyphal protein of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Soil Sci 161:575–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wright SF, Upadhyaya A (1998) A survey of soils for aggregate stability and glomalin, a glycoprotein produced by hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Plant Soil 198:97–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Yevdokimov IV, Gattinger A, Buegger F, Schloter M, Munch JC (2012) Changes in the structure and activity of a soil microbial community caused by inorganic nitrogen fertilization. Microbiology 81:743–749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Zaia FC, Gama-Rodrigues AC, Gama-Rodrigues EF, Moço MKS, Fontes AG, Machado RCR, Baligar VC (2012) Carbon, nitrogen, organic phosphorus, microbial biomass and N mineralization in soils under cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia. Braz Agroforest Syst 86:197–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Zelles L (1997) Phospholipid fatty acid profiles in selected members of soil microbial communities. Chemosphere 35:275–294CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Zelles L (1999) Fatty acid patterns of phospholipids and lipopolysaccharides in the characterisation of microbial communities in soil: a review. Biol Fertil Soils 29:111–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Zelles L, Bai QY (1993) Fractionation of fatty acids derived from soil lipids by solid phase extraction and their quantitative analysis by GC-MS. Soil Biol Biochem 25:495–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hanyin Sun
    • 1
  • Philipp Koal
    • 2
  • Georg Gerl
    • 2
  • Reiner Schroll
    • 1
  • Andreas Gattinger
    • 3
  • Rainer Georg Joergensen
    • 4
  • Jean Charles Munch
    • 5
  1. 1.Research Unit of Microbe-Plant InteractionsHelmholtz-Zentrum MünchenNeuherbergGermany
  2. 2.Institute of Biochemical Plant PathologyHelmholtz-Zentrum MünchenNeuherbergGermany
  3. 3.Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL)FrickSwitzerland
  4. 4.Soil Biology and Plant NutritionUniversity of KasselWitzenhausenGermany
  5. 5.Technical University of Munich, WZWFreisingGermany

Personalised recommendations