Skip to main content

Early recognition of graft compatibility in Uapaca kirkiana Müell Arg. clones, provenances and species

Abstract

Examination of callus micro-grafts in Uapaca kirkiana Müell Arg. was carried out with the objective of determining early signs of graft compatibility. Leaves from U. kirkiana, U. nitida and Jatropha curcas trees were used for callus induction. Two pieces of callus were co-cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with different supplements. Co-cultured calli were embedded in paraffin wax and dissected. The specimens were stained in safranin and fast green before viewing under a light microscope. Results showed that MS medium with 0.1 mg l−1 thidiazuron (TDZ) and 0.5 mg l−1 naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) or 1.0 mg l−1 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 0.5 mg l−1 NAA was effective for callus induction. There were no necrotic layers at the unions within U. kirkiana clones and provenances, but a differential growth (irregularity) between U. kirkiana and U. nitida co-cultured calli. Phenol deposits were observed at the union interfaces of U. kirkiana combinations and were high on calli derived from mature trees. Phenol deposits were absent at the union of J. curcas heterografts. Necrotic layers developed at the unions of U. kirkiana and J. curcas micro-grafts and indicating an outright graft incompatibility. Accumulation of phenol deposits at the union interfaces inhibited graft compatibility in many U. kirkiana combinations. Callus fusion technique can be used to identify partners with an outright graft incompatibility, especially for distant related plant species.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7

References

  1. Agufa CAC (2002) Genetic variation in Sclerocarya birrea and Uapaca kirkiana indigenous fruit trees of the miombo woodland. MSc thesis, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, 123 pp

  2. Akinnifesi FK, Kwesiga FR, Mhango J, Mkonda A, Chilanga T, Swai R (2004) Domesticating priority for Miombo indigenous fruit trees as a promising livelihood option for small-holder farmers in Southern Africa. Acta Hortic 632:15–30

    Google Scholar 

  3. Akinnifesi FK, Kwesiga FR, Mhango J, Chilanga T, Mkonda A, Kadu CAC, Kadzere I, Mithöfer D, Saka JDK, Sileshi G, Ramadhani T, Dhliwayo P (2006) Towards the development of Miombo fruit trees as commercial tree crops in Southern Africa. For Trees Live 16:103–121

    Google Scholar 

  4. Akinnifesi FK, Mhango J, Sileshi G, Chilanga T (2007). Early growth and survival of three Miombo indigenous fruit tree species under fertilizer, manure and dry-season irrigation in southern Malawi. For Ecol Manage (DOI.10.1016/j.foreco.2007.09.025)

  5. Considine JA (1983) Concepts and practice of use of plant growth regulating chemicals in viticulture. In: Nickell LG (ed) Plant growth regulating chemicals, vol 1. CRC Press Inc., Florida, pp 89–183

    Google Scholar 

  6. Errea P, Felipe A, Herrero M (1994) Graft establishment between compatible and incompatible Prunus spp. J Exp Bot 272:393–401

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Errea P (1998) Implications of phenolic compounds in graft incompatibility in fruit tree species. Sci Hortic 74:195–205

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Errea P, Garay L, Marin JA (2001) Early detection of graft incompatibility in apricot (Prunus armeniaca) using in vitro techniques. Physiol Plant 112:135–141

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Ermel FF, Poessel JL, Faurobert M, Catesson AM (1997) Early scion/stock junction in compatible and incompatible pear/pear and pear/quince grafts: A histo-cytological study. Ann Bot 79:505–515

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. GenStat release 4.24DE (2005) GenStat for windows, discovery 2nd edn. Lawes Agricultural Trust, Rothamsted Experimental Station, UK

  11. Ham C, Akinnifesi FK, Franzel F, Jordaan D du PS, Hansmann C, Ajayi OC, de Kock C (2007) Opportunities for Commercialization and Enterprise Development of Indigenous Fruits in southern Africa. In: Akinnifesi FK, Leakey RRB, Ajayi OC, Sileshi G, Tchoundjeu Z, Matakala P, Kwesiga FR (eds) Indigenous fruit trees in the Tropics: domestication, utilization and commercialization. World Agroforestry Centre: Nairobi. CAB International Publishing, Wallingford, UK, pp 254–272

    Google Scholar 

  12. Hamisy WC (2004) Promotion of effective conservation and sustainable utilization of Uapaca kirkiana Arg. Müel. Project Report, ICRAF Nairobi, Kenya

  13. Jonard R, Lukman D, Schall F, Villemur P (1990) Early testing of graft incompatibilities in apricot and lemon trees using in vitro callus techniques. Sci Hortic 53:117–128

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Kwesiga FR, Akinnifesi FK, Ramadhani T, Kadzere I, Saka JDK (2000) Domestication of indigenous fruit trees of the Miombo in southern Africa. In: Shumba EM, Lusepani E, Hangula R (eds) The domestication and commercialization of indigenous fruit trees in the SADC Region. SADC Tree Seed Centre Network, Harare, Zimbabwe, pp 8–24

    Google Scholar 

  15. Maghembe JA, Seyani JH (1991) Multipurpose trees used by smallholders in Malawi: results of ethnobotanical survey. AFRENA report No 42. ICRAF, Nairobi, Kenya, 30 pp

  16. Maghembe JA, Simons AJ, Kwesiga F, Rarieya MM (1998) Selecting indigenous fruit trees for domestication in southern Africa. Nairobi, ICRAF, pp 1–39

    Google Scholar 

  17. Mithöfer D, Waibel H, Akinnifesi FK (2006) The role of food from natural resources in reducing vulnerability to poverty: a case study from Zimbabwe. Proceedings of the 26th conference on the International Association of Agricultural Economists (IAAE), August 12–26, Queensland, Australia

  18. Moore R (1986) Graft incompatibility between pear and quince: the influence of metabolites of Pyrus communis. Am J Bot 73:1–4

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue culture. Physiol Plant 15:473–497

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. Nito N, Han SH, Katayama Y (2005) Evaluation of graft compatibility for taxonomically relationships among species of the orange subfamily. Acta Hortic 692:85–89

    Google Scholar 

  21. Pina A, Errea P (2005) A review of new advances in mechanism of graft compatible–incompatible in Prunus spp. Sci Hortic 106:1–11

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Ramadhani T (2002) Marketing of indigenous fruits in Zimbabwe. Socio-economic studies on rural development, vol. 129. Wissenchaftsverlag Vauk, Kiel, Germany

    Google Scholar 

  23. Sita GL, Raghava-Swamy BV (1993) Regeneration of plantlets from leaf disc cultures of rosewood: control of leaf abscission and shoot tip necrosis. Plant Sci 88:107–112

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

Financial support from the Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation (BMZ/GTZ), Germany for through the World Agroforestry Centre Southern Africa Regional Programme is acknowledged.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Simon A. Mng’omba.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Mng’omba, S.A., du Toit, E.S. & Akinnifesi, F.K. Early recognition of graft compatibility in Uapaca kirkiana Müell Arg. clones, provenances and species. Agroforest Syst 74, 173–183 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-007-9100-7

Download citation

Keywords

  • Decontamination
  • Differentiation
  • Induction
  • Exudates
  • Wounding