Advertisement

A Call to the Helping Disciplines to Deconstruct Diversity and Race: an Essay on the Social Constructions of the “Other”

  • Gregory Gross
  • Eugenia L. Weiss
ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Abstract

This article provides a contemporary deconstruction of diversity, race and intersecting identities in America. The authors challenge current conceptualizations of race/ethnicity and difference via social constructionist, contextual and critical approaches through an essay format. Considerations for the helping professions (i.e., counselors, psychologists, social workers and psychotherapists) are offered through various lenses, including historical, political, social and economic perspectives, providing the opportunity for continued professional dialogue towards the promotion and understanding of social justice.

Keywords

Intersectionality Diversity Oppression Privilege Class Multiculturalism 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

As authors we declare that we have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Abrams, L. S., & Moio, J. A. (2009). Critical race theory and the cultural competence dilemma in social work education. Journal of Social Work Education, 45(2), 245–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alphonse, M., George, P., & Moffatt, K. (2009). Redefining social work standards in the context og globalization. International Social Work, 51(2), 145–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Audi, T. (2011, June 8). Latino gang targeted blacks, US says. The Wall Street Journal, p. A2.Google Scholar
  4. Baber, H. E. (2008). The multicultural mystique. New York: Prometheus.Google Scholar
  5. Baudrillard, J. (2000). America (trans: Turner, C.). New York: Verso.Google Scholar
  6. Baudrillard, J. (2003). The spirit of terrorism (trans: Turner, C.). New York: Verso.Google Scholar
  7. Baudrillard, J. (2009). Why hasn’t everything already changed? (trans: Turner, C.). Calcutta: Seagull Books.Google Scholar
  8. Baudrillard, J., & Guillaume, M. (2008). Radical alterity (trans: Hodges, A.). Los Angeles: Semiotext(e).Google Scholar
  9. Bauman, Z. (2005). Liquid life. Malden: Polity.Google Scholar
  10. Bewes, T. (2002). Reification or the anxiety of late capitalism. New York: Verso.Google Scholar
  11. Boldt, L. (2016). Following the trace of the other. In J. Talbot, L. Fandrich, & S. M. Specht (Eds.), Identity and anonymity: an artful anthology (pp. 22–31). Chester: Mizzentop Publishing.Google Scholar
  12. Butler, J. (2004). Changing the subject: Judith Butler’s politics of radical resignation. In S. Salih (Ed.), The Judith Butler reader (pp. 325–356). Malden: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  13. Chérif, M. (2008). Islam & the West: A conversation with Jacques Derrida (trans: Fagan, T. L.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  14. Coleman, S. (2011). Addressing the puzzle of race. Journal of Social Work Education, 47(1), 91–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Collins, M. (1998). Critical crosscurrents in education. Malabar: Krieger Publishing.Google Scholar
  16. Collins, M., Kim, S., & Perlstein, J. (2009). Addressing issues of globalizationin the training of public child welfare workers. International Social Work, 52(1), 72–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Comstock, D. L., Hammer, T. R., Strentzsch, J., Cannon, K., Parsons, J., & Salazar, G. (2008). Relational-cultural theory: A framework for bridging relational, multicultural and social justice competencies. Journal of Counseling & Development, 86, 279–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Crethar, H. C., Torres Rivera, E., & Nash, S. (2008). In search of common threads: Linking multicultural, feminist and social justice counseling paradigms. Journal of Counseling & Development, 86, 270–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Davis, L. J. (2002). Bending over backwards: Disability, dismodernism, & other difficult positions. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Davis, L. E. (2016). Why are they angry with us? Essays on race. Chicago: Lyceum Books, Inc..Google Scholar
  21. Derrida, J. (1998). Monolingualism of the other OR the prosthesis of origin (trans: Mensah, P.). Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Derrida, J. (2005). Paper machine (trans: Bowlby, R.). Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Derrida, J., & Roudinesco, E. (2004). For what tomorrow: A dialogue (trans: Fort, J.). Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Derrida, J., & Stiegler, B. (2002). Echographies of television (trans: Bajorek, J.). Malden: Polity.Google Scholar
  25. Dessel, A., Bolen, R., & Shepardson, C. (2012). Hopes for intergroup dialogue: Affirmation and allies. Journal of Social Work Education, 48(2), 361–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Diller, J. (2007). Cultural diversity. Belmont: Thomson.Google Scholar
  27. Dougherty, C. (2010, June 11). US nears racial milestone. The Wall Street Journal, p. A3.Google Scholar
  28. Duran, E., Firehammer, J., & Gonzalez, J. (2008). Liberation psychology as the path toward healing cultural soul wounds. Journal of Counseling & Development, 86, 288–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fassihi, F., & Hookway, J. (2017, September 14). Myanmar faces outcry over crackdown. The Wall Street Journal, p. A 6.Google Scholar
  30. Giroux, H. (2000). Impure acts: The practical politics of cultural studies. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  31. Giroux, H., & Giroux, S. (2004). Take back higher education. New York: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Graham, J., Bradshaw, C., & Trew, J. (2010). Cultural considerations for social service agencies working with Muslim clients. Social Work, 55(4), 337–346.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Gutierrez, K. D. (2016). Designing resilient ecologies: Social design experiments and a new social imagination. Educational Researcher, 45(3), 187–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hancock, T., Kiedaras, C., & Waites, C. (2012). Facing structural inequality: Students’ orientation to oppression and practice with oppressed groups. Journal of Social Work Education, 48(1), 5–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Horrocks, C. (1999). Baudrillard and the millennium. Lanham: Totem.Google Scholar
  36. Houshmand, S., Spanierman, L. B., & De Stefano, J. (2017). Racial micro-aggressions: A primer with implications for counseling practice. International Journal of Advanced Counselling, 39, 203–216.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10447-017-9292-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hulko, W. (2009). The time and context-contingent nature of instersectionality and interlocking oppressions. Affilia: Journal of Women and Social Work, 24(1), 44–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ip, G. (2016, June 30). What drives anti-immigrant feelings? The Wall Street Journal, p. A2.Google Scholar
  39. Jani, J., Pierce, D., Ortiz, L., & Sowbel, L. (2011). Access to intersectionality, content, to competence: Deconstructing social work education diversity standards. Journal of Baccalaureate Social Work, 47(2), 283–301.Google Scholar
  40. Johnston, L. B. (2009). Critical thinking and creativity in a social work diversity course: Challenging students to “think outside the box.”. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 19, 646–656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. La Sala, M. (2007). Too many eggs in the wrong basket: A queer critique of the same-sex marriage movement. Social Work, 25(2), 181–183.Google Scholar
  42. Legorano, G., & Ball, D. (2017, November 20). Italy struggles to absorb refugees. The Wall Street Journal, p. A 7.Google Scholar
  43. McDowell, T., & Hernández, P. (2010). Decolonizing academia: Intersectionality, participation, and accountability in family therapy and counseling. Journal of Feminist Family Therapy, 22(2), 93–111.  https://doi.org/10.1080/08952831003787834.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. McGurn, W. (2010, June 8). Our racially divisive census. The Wall Street Journal, p. A17.Google Scholar
  45. McIntosh, P. (2004). White privilege: Unpacking the invisible knapsack. In M. L. Anderson & P. H. Collins (Eds.), Race, class and gender: An anthology (5th ed., pp. 103–108). Belmont: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.Google Scholar
  46. Michaels, W. (2006). The trouble with diversity: How we learned to love identity and ignore inequality. New York: Holt.Google Scholar
  47. Mullaly, B. (2010). Challenging oppression and confronting privilege. Canada: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  48. O’Neal, G. (2012). Self-assessment and dialogue as tools for appreciating diversity. Journal of Social Work Education, 48(1), 159–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Olson, J. (2007). Social work’s professional and social justice projects: Discourses in conflict. Journal of Progressive Human Services, 18(1), 45–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ortiz, L., & Jani, J. (2010). Critical race theory: A transformational model for teaching diversity. Journal of Social Work Education, 46(2), 175–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Peters, H. C. (2017). Multicultural complexity: An intersectional lens for clinical supervision. International Journal of Advanced Counselling, 39, 176–187.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10447-017-9290-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Phillips, A., Bakko, M., & Clark, T. (2011). Promoting cultural competencies through the use of growth groups in predominantly white classrooms. Journal of Baccalaureate Social Work, 16(2), 35–51.Google Scholar
  53. Pon, G. (2009). Cultural competency as new racism: An ontology of forgetting. Journal of Progressive Human Services, 20(1), 59–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Rachman, A., & Otto, B. (2017, December 15). Indonesia panel kills bid to ban adultery. The Wall Street Journal, p. A 7.Google Scholar
  55. Ritzer, G. (2002). McDonaldization: The reader. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge.Google Scholar
  56. Robbins, S. P. (2016). From the editor – Sticks and stones: Trigger warnings, microaggressions, and political correctness. Journal of Social Work Education, 52(1), 1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Rojek, C. (2007). Cultural Studies. Malden: Polity.Google Scholar
  58. Said, E. (2004). Humanism and democratic criticism. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Sapolsky, R. (2016, January 9-10). To read faces across races, start very young. The Wall Street Journal, p. C 2.Google Scholar
  60. Seelman, K., & Walls, N. (2010). Person-organization incongruence as a predictor of right-wing authorization, social dominance orientation, and heterosexism. Journal of Social Work Education, 46(1), 103–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Shine, P. (2011). White professors taking responsibility for teaching white students about race, racism, and privilege. The Journal of Progressive Human Services, 22(1), 50–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Shoos, D. (2003). Representing domestic violence: Ambivalence and difference in What’s Love Got to Do with It. Muse/NWSA Journal, 15(2), 57–75.Google Scholar
  63. Stamouli, N., & Peker, E. (2016, March 4). EU official aims to deter immigrants. The Wall Street Journal, p. A9.Google Scholar
  64. Steele, S. (2016, November 8). Trump, Clinton and the culture of deference. The Wall Street Journal, p. A15.Google Scholar
  65. Trofimov, Y. (2009, January 17–18). ‘Tough love’ in the outback: Australia’s push to help Aborigines is upending tribal customs-And giving women a boost. The Wall Street Journal, pp. A1 and A6.Google Scholar
  66. Walls, P. (2009). Multicultural competence: Are BSW students adequately prepared? Journal of Baccalaureate Social Work, 14(2), 141–159.Google Scholar
  67. Weiss, B. (2011, May 28–29). David Mamet’s coming out party. The Wall Street Journal, p. A13.Google Scholar
  68. Wexler, A., & Gamede, N. (2017, December 27). Marry my daughter, and pay electronically, please add sheep. The Wall Street Journal, pp. A1 & A 8.Google Scholar
  69. Young, I. M. (1990). Justice and the politics of difference. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Saint RoseAlbanyUSA
  2. 2.Orange County Academic Center, Suzanne Dworak-Peck, School of Social WorkUniversity of Southern CaliforniaIrvineUSA

Personalised recommendations