A Cutting Force Prediction Model, Experimental Studies, and Optimization of Cutting Parameters for Rotary Ultrasonic Face Milling of C/SiC Composites

Abstract

Ceramic matrix composites of type C/SiC have great potential because of their excellent properties such as high specific strength, high specific rigidity, high-temperature endurance, and superior wear resistance. However, the machining of C/SiC is still challenging to achieve desired efficiency and quality due to their heterogeneous, anisotropic, and varying thermal properties. Rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM) is considered as a highly feasible technology for advanced materials. Cutting force prediction in RUM can help to optimize input variables and reduce processing defects in composite materials. In this research, a mathematical axial cutting force model has been developed based on the indentation fracture theory of material removal mechanism considering penetration trajectory and energy conservation theorem for rotary ultrasonic face milling (RUFM) of C/SiC composites and validated through designed sets of experiments. Experimental results were found to be in good agreement with theoretically simulated results having less than 15% error. Therefore, this theoretical model can be effectively applied to predict the axial cutting forces during RUFM of C/SiC. The surface roughness of the workpiece materials was investigated after machining. The relationships of axial cutting force and surface roughness with cutting parameters, including spindle speed, feed rate, and cutting depth, were also investigated. In order to identify the influence of cutting parameters on the RUFM process, correlation analysis was applied. In addition, response surface methodology was employed to optimize the cutting parameters.

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Abbreviations

CMC:

Ceramic matrix composites

C/SiC:

Carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide matrix composites

RUM:

Rotary ultrasonic machining

RUFM:

Rotary ultrasonic face milling

PCD:

Polycrystalline diamond

R :

Distance of an abrasive grain from the center of the conical cutting tool (mm)

R 1 :

Smaller radius of the conical cutting tool (mm)

R 2 :

Larger radius of the conical cutting tool (mm)

w :

Instantaneous penetration depth (μm)

w max :

Maximum penetration depth of a diamond abrasive grain (μm)

b 1 :

The slope of the simplified straight line of penetration trajectory

F n :

Instantaneous cutting force applied to one abrasive grain (N)

F n :

Average cutting force of a single abrasive grain (N)

F a :

Average axial cutting force of a single abrasive grain (N)

F s :

Simulated axial cutting force according to the mathematical model (N)

F m :

Measured axial cutting force according to the experiments (N)

H v :

Vickers hardness of the workpiece material (GPa)

K IC :

Fracture toughness of the workpiece material (MPa·m1/2)

E :

Elastic modulus of the workpiece material (GPa)

ν :

Poisson’s ratio of the workpiece material

V s :

Volume of a single diamond abrasive grain (mm3)

V 0 :

Theoretical material removal volume of fracture zone (mm3)

V :

Actual material removal volume by one diamond abrasive grain (mm3)

MRR a :

Material removal rate of a single diamond abrasive grain (mm3/s)

MRR T :

Material removal rate of a cutting tool (mm3/s)

β :

Semi-angle between two opposite edge of an abrasive grain (deg)

d :

Penetration width (μm)

S a :

Side length of a single diamond abrasive grain (μm)

N α :

Total number of diamond abrasive grains involved in face milling

C α :

Concentration of the diamond abrasive grains on a cutting tool

ρ :

Density of the diamond abrasive grains (g/cm3)

A 0 :

Contact area of the conical cutting tool involved in face milling (mm2)

θ :

Slope angle of the conical cutting tool (deg)

z :

Trajectory of the diamond abrasive grains

A :

Amplitude of the ultrasonic vibration (μm)

f :

Frequency of the ultrasonic vibration (Hz)

I :

Impulse during one ultrasonic vibration cycle (N·s)

t :

Cutting time (s)

Δt :

Effective contact time in a vibration cycle (s)

L s :

Effective cutting distance, that an abrasive grain travels during Δt (μm)

C L :

Length of lateral crack (μm)

C h :

Depth of lateral crack (μm)

S :

Spindle speed (rpm)

f r :

Feed rate (mm/min)

a p :

Cutting depth (mm)

b D :

Cutting width (mm)

K :

Correction coefficient of axial cutting force

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Acknowledgments

This research was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. U1737201) and the National Science and Technology Major Project (Grant No. 2017-VII-0015-0111). The authors are indebted to these financial supports to accomplish this research work.

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Correspondence to Shafiul Islam.

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Islam, S., Yuan, S. & Li, Z. A Cutting Force Prediction Model, Experimental Studies, and Optimization of Cutting Parameters for Rotary Ultrasonic Face Milling of C/SiC Composites. Appl Compos Mater (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10443-020-09815-5

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Keywords

  • C/SiC composites
  • Rotary ultrasonic face milling
  • A predictive cutting force model
  • Surface roughness
  • Optimization of cutting parameters