Objective Evaluation of Whole Body Kinematics in a Simulated, Restrained Frontal Impact

Abstract

The use of human body models as an additional data point in the evaluation of human-machine interaction requires quantitative validation. In this study a validation of the Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) average male occupant model (M50-O v. 4.5) in a restrained frontal sled test environment is presented. For vehicle passengers, frontal crash remains the most common mode, and the most common source of fatalities. A total of 55-time history traces of reaction loads and kinematics from the model were evaluated against corresponding PMHS data (n = 5). Further, the model’s sensitivity to the belt path was studied by replicating two documented PMHS cases with prominent lateral and medial belt paths respectively. Results were quantitatively evaluated using open source CORA software. A tradeoff was observed; better correlation scores were achieved on gross measures (e.g. reaction loads), whereas better corridor scores were achieved on localized measures (rib deflections), indicating that subject specificity may dominate the comparison at localized anatomical regions. On an overall basis, the CORA scores were 0.68, 0.66 and 0.60 for force, body kinematics and chest wall kinematics. Belt force responses received the highest grouped CORA score of 0.85. Head and sternum kinematics earning a 0.8 and 0.7 score respectively. The model demonstrated high sensitivity to belt path, resulting in a 20-point increase in CORA score when the belt was routed closer to analogous location of data collection. The human model demonstrated overall reasonable biofidelity and sensitivity to countermeasures in frontal crash kinematics.

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    https://www.nhtsa.gov/research-data/databases-and-software.

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Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Global Human Body Models Consortium, LLC, under GHBMC Project No. WFU-006. All simulations were run on the DEAC cluster at Wake Forest University, with support provided by Adam Carlson and Cody Stevens. The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of GHBMC developers, including: L. Zhang (Wayne State), D. Cronin (U. Waterloo), M. Panzer (U. Virginia), P. Beillas (U. Lyon). Dale Johnson (WFU) assisted in manuscript preparation.

Conflict of interest

F Scott Gayzik is a member of Elemance, LLC., which distributes academic and commercial licenses for the use of GHBMC-owned computational human body models.

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Correspondence to F. Scott Gayzik.

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Associate Editor Estefanía Peña oversaw the review of this article.

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Schap, J.M., Koya, B. & Gayzik, F.S. Objective Evaluation of Whole Body Kinematics in a Simulated, Restrained Frontal Impact. Ann Biomed Eng 47, 512–523 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10439-018-02180-2

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Keywords

  • Human body model
  • Finite element
  • Validation
  • Frontal impact
  • Injury
  • Biomechanics