Acta Mechanica Sinica

, Volume 34, Issue 4, pp 644–652 | Cite as

A novel method for predicting the power outputs of wave energy converters

  • Yingguang WangEmail author
Research Paper


This paper focuses on realistically predicting the power outputs of wave energy converters operating in shallow water nonlinear waves. A heaving two-body point absorber is utilized as a specific calculation example, and the generated power of the point absorber has been predicted by using a novel method (a nonlinear simulation method) that incorporates a second order random wave model into a nonlinear dynamic filter. It is demonstrated that the second order random wave model in this article can be utilized to generate irregular waves with realistic crest–trough asymmetries, and consequently, more accurate generated power can be predicted by subsequently solving the nonlinear dynamic filter equation with the nonlinearly simulated second order waves as inputs. The research findings demonstrate that the novel nonlinear simulation method in this article can be utilized as a robust tool for ocean engineers in their design, analysis and optimization of wave energy converters.


Wave energy converters Nonlinear simulation Nonlinear dynamic filter 



The work was supported by the State Key Laboratory of Ocean Engineering of China (Grant GKZD010038). Special thanks are due to the two anonymous reviewers whose valuable comments have led to the improved quality of this paper.


  1. 1.
    Gunn, K., Stock-Williams, C.: Quantifying the global wave power resource. Renew. Energy 44, 296–304 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cargo, C.J., Hillis, A.J., Plummer, A.R.: Optimisation and control of a hydraulic power take-off unit for a wave energy converter in irregular waves. Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part A J. Power Energy 228, 462–479 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Eriksson, M., Isberg, J., Leijon, M.: Hydrodynamic modelling of a direct drive wave energy converter. Int. J. Eng. Sci. 43, 1377–1387 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fan, Y.J., Mu, A.L., Ma, T.: Design and control of a point absorber wave energy converter with an open loop hydraulic transmission. Energy Convers. Manag. 121, 13–21 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fernandes, M.A., Fonseca, N.: Finite depth effects on the wave energy resource and the energy captured by a point absorber. Ocean Eng. 67, 13–26 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gomes, R.P.F., Lopes, M.F.P., Henriques, J.C.C., et al.: The dynamics and power extraction of bottom-hinged plate wave energy converters in regular and irregular waves. Ocean Eng. 96, 86–99 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Herber, D.R., Allison, J.T.: Wave energy extraction maximization in irregular ocean waves using pseudospectral methods. In: ASME 2013 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference, Portland, OR (2013)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sánchez, E.V., Hansen, R.H., Kramer, M.M.: Control performance assessment and design of optimal control to harvest ocean energy. IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 40, 15–26 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Stelzer, M.A., Joshi, R.P.: Evaluation of wave energy generation from buoy heave response based on linear generator concepts. J. Renew. Sustain. Energy 4, 063137 (2012). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wang, L.G., Isberg, J.: Nonlinear passive control of a wave energy converter subject to constraints in irregular waves. Energies 8, 6528–6542 (2015). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yu, Y.H., Hallett, K., Li, Y., et al.: Design and analysis for a floating oscillating surge wave energy converter. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering—OMAE, Volume 9B, San Francisco, United States (2014)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lindgren, G.: Asymmetric waves in wave energy systems analysed by the stochastic Gauss–Lagrange wave model. Proc. Estonian Acad. Sci. 64, 291–296 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Forristall, G.Z.: Wave crest distributions: Observations and second-order theory. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 30, 1931–1943 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Toffoli, A., Onorato, M., Monbaliu, J.: Wave statistics in unimodal and bimodal seas from a second-order model. Eur. J. Mech. B. Fluids 25, 649–661 (2006)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wang, Y.G., Xia, Y.Q.: Simulating mixed sea state waves for marine design. Appl. Ocean Res. 37, 33–44 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wang, Y.G., Xia, Y.Q.: Calculating nonlinear wave crest exceedance probabilities using a Transformed Rayleigh method. Coast. Eng. 78, 1–12 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wang, Y.G.: Calculating crest statistics of shallow water nonlinear waves based on standard spectra and measured data at the Poseidon platform. Ocean Eng. 87, 16–24 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wang, Y.G.: Nonlinear crest distribution for shallow water Stokes waves. Appl. Ocean Res. 57, 152–161 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dias, F., Renzi, E., Gallagher, S., et al.: Analytical and computational modelling for wave energy systems: the example of oscillating wave surge converters. Acta. Mech. Sin. 33, 647–662 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Marthinsen, T.: On the Statistics of Irregular Second-Order Waves. Stanford Report RMS-11 (1992)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Langley, R.S.: A statistical analysis of non-linear random waves. Ocean Eng. 14, 389–407 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hasselmann, K.: On the non-linear energy transfer in a gravity-wave spectrum, Part 1. General theory. J. Fluid Mech. 12, 481–500 (1962)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ochi, M.K.: Ocean Waves, the Stochastic Approach. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1998)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chakrabarti, S.K.: Hydrodynamics of Offshore Structures. Computational Mechanics Publications, Southampton (1987)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Chinese Society of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics; Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Ocean EngineeringShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea ExplorationShanghaiChina
  3. 3.School of Naval Architecture, Ocean and Civil EngineeringShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations