Advertisement

Acta Mechanica Sinica

, Volume 32, Issue 1, pp 101–111 | Cite as

Modeling rock specimens through 3D printing: Tentative experiments and prospects

  • Quan JiangEmail author
  • Xiating Feng
  • Lvbo Song
  • Yahua Gong
  • Hong Zheng
  • Jie Cui
Research Paper

Abstract

Current developments in 3D printing (3DP) technology provide the opportunity to produce rock-like specimens and geotechnical models through additive manufacturing, that is, from a file viewed with a computer to a real object. This study investigated the serviceability of 3DP products as substitutes for rock specimens and rock-type materials in experimental analysis of deformation and failure in the laboratory. These experiments were performed on two types of materials as follows: (1) compressive experiments on printed sand-powder specimens in different shapes and structures, including intact cylinders, cylinders with small holes, and cuboids with pre-existing cracks, and (2) compressive and shearing experiments on printed polylactic acid cylinders and molded shearing blocks. These tentative tests for 3DP technology have exposed its advantages in producing complicated specimens with special external forms and internal structures, the mechanical similarity of its product to rock-type material in terms of deformation and failure, and its precision in mapping shapes from the original body to the trial sample (such as a natural rock joint). These experiments and analyses also successfully demonstrate the potential and prospects of 3DP technology to assist in the deformation and failure analysis of rock-type materials, as well as in the simulation of similar material modeling experiments.

Keywords

Rock mechanics Similar material 3D printing Geotechnical model Deformation and failure 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants 41172284 and 51379202).

References

  1. 1.
    Charles, H.: Apparatus for production of three-dimensional objects by stereolithography. U.S. Patent 4,575,330 (1986)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sachs, E.M., Haggerty, J.H., Cima, M.J., et al.: Three-dimensional printing techniques, US Patent 5,204,055. (1989)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wohlers, T., Gornet, T.: History of additive manufacturing. Online Supplement to wohlers report 2011. http://www.wohlersassociates.com/history2011, Accessed 22.3.2012. (2012)
  4. 4.
    Yoo, S.S.: 3D On-Demand Bioprinting for the Creation of Engineered Tissues. In: Ringeisen, B.R., et al. (eds.) Cell and Organ Printing, pp. 3–17. Springer Science Business Media B.V, New York (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bose, S., Vahabzadeh, S., Bandyopadhyay, A.: Bone tissue engineering using 3D printing. Mater. Today 16, 496–504 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Huang, T.Q., Qu, X., Liu, J., et al.: 3D printing of biomimetic microstructures for cancer cell migration. Biomed. Microdevices 16, 127–132 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Espalin, D., Muse, D.W., MacDonald, E., et al.: 3D Printing multifunctionality: structures with electronics. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 72, 963–978 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hoerber, J., Glasschroeder, J., Pfeffer, M., et al.: Approaches for additive manufacturing of 3D electronic applications. Procedia CIRP 17, 806–811 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lyke, J.C.: Plug-and-play satellites. IEEE Spectr. 49, 36–42 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Moon, S.K., Tan, Y.E., Hwang, J., et al.: Application of 3D printing technology for designing light-weight unmanned aerial vehicle wing structures. Int. J. Precis. Eng. Man. Gr. Technol. 1, 223–228 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Henry, S.: 3D Printing for mathematical visualisation. In: Michael, K., Ravi, V. (eds.) Mathematical Entertainments, pp. 56–62. University of California, Berkeley (2012)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Schwarzbach, F., Sarjakoski, T., Oksanen, J., et al.: Physical 3D models from LIDAR data as tactile maps for visually impaired persons. In: Buchroithner, M. (ed.) True-3D in Cartography: Auto Stereoscopic and Solid Visualisation of Geodata, Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography. Springer, Berlin (2012)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Eisenberg, M.: 3D printing for children: What to build next? Int. J. Child Comput. Interact. 1, 7–13 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bilton, N.: The 3-D Printing Free-for-All. (2011)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Priest, S.D., Brown, E.T.: Probabilistic stability analysis of variable rock slopes. Trans. Inst. Min. Metall. A. 92, 1–12 (1983)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hoek, E.: Reliability of Hoek-Brown estimates of rock mass properties and their impact on design. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 35, 63–68 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cai, M.: Rock Mass Characterization and rock property variability considerations for tunnel and cavern design. Rock Mech. Rock Eng. 44, 379–399 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Manouchehrian, A., Marji, M.F.: Numerical analysis of confinement effect on crack propagation mechanism from a flaw in a pre-cracked rock under compression. Acta Mech. Sin. 30, 547–558 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yang, S.Q., Jing, H.W., Xu, T.: Mechanical behavior and failure analysis of brittle sandstone specimens containing combined flaws under uniaxial compression. J. Cent. South Univ. 21, 2059–2073 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Niewiadomski, R., Anderson, D.: 3-D manufacturing: The beginning of common creativity revolution. In: Lee, N. (ed.) Digital Da Vinci. Springer Science Business Media, New York (2014)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    McMains, S.: Layered manufacturing technologies. Commun. ACM 48, 50–55 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Herrmann, K.H., Gartner, C., Gullmar, D., et al.: 3D printing of MRI compatible components: Why every MRI research group should have a low-budget 3D printer. Med. Eng. Phys. 36, 1373–1380 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bell, C.: The possibility maintaining and troubleshooting your 3D printer. Technology in action, Friends of Apress (2014)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jee, H.J., Sachs, E.: A visual simulation technique for 3D printing. Adv. Eng. Softw. 31, 97–106 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Junk, S., Samann-Sun, J., Niederhofer, M.: Application of 3D printing for the rapid tooling of thermoforming moulds. In: Lin, L. (ed)., Proceedings of the 36th International MATADOR Conference, SrichandHinduja, pp, 369–372 (2010)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Serrat, J., Lumbreras, F., Lopez, A.M.: Cost estimation of custom hoses from STL files and CAD drawings. Comput. Ind. 64, 299–309 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wikipedia: STL (file format). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/STL_(file_format)#cite_ref-1. Accessed 22.3.2012 (2015)
  28. 28.
    ISRM.: Suggested methods for determining the uniaxial compressive strength and deformability of rock materials. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. Geomech. Abs. 16, 135–140 (1979)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fairhurst, C.E., Hudson, J.A.: Draft ISRM suggested method for the complete stress-strain curve for intact rock in uniaxial compression. Int. J. Rock. Mech. Min. Sci. 36, 279–289 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Brady, B.H.G., Brown, E.T.: Rock Mechanics for Underground Mining, 3rd edn. Springer Science Inc., Boston (2004)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cai, M.: Practical estimates of tensile strength and Hoek-Brown strength parameter mi of brittle Rocks. Rock Mech. Rock Eng. 43, 167–184 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Jiang, Q., Feng, X.T., Hatzor, Y.H., et al.: Mechanical anisotropy of columnar jointed basalts: An example from the Baihetan hydropower station. China. Eng. Geol. 175, 35–45 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bobet, A., Einstein, H.H.: Fracture coalescence in rock-type materials under uniaxial and biaxial compression. Int. J. Rock. Mech. Min. Sci. 35, 863–888 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wong, R.H.C., Chau, K.T.: Crack coalescence in a rock-like material containing two cracks. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 35, 147–164 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zhang, Z.H., Sun, F.: The three-dimension model for the rock-breaking mechanism of disc cutter and analysis of rock-breaking forces. Acta Mech. Sin. 28, 675–682 (2012)CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wasantha, P.L.P., Ranjith, P.G., Xu, T., et al.: A new parameter to describe the persistency of non-persistent joints. Eng. Geol. 181, 71–77 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wong, R.H.C., Chau, K.T., Tang, C.A.: Analysis of crack coalescence in rock-like materials containing three flaws—part I: experimental approach. Int. J. Rock. Mech. Min. Sci. 38, 909–924 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zhang, X.P., Wong, L.N.Y., Wang, S.J.: Effects of the ratio of flaw size to specimen size on cracking behavior. B. Eng. Geol. Environ. 74, 181–193 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Haberfield, C.M., Seidel, J.P.: Some recent advances in the modelling of soft rock joints in direct shear. Geotech. Geol. Eng. 17, 177–195 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ghazvinian, A.H., Taghichian, A., Hashemi, M., et al.: The Shear behavior of bedding planes of weakness between two different rock types with high strength difference. Rock Mech. Rock Eng. 43, 69–87 (2010)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Usefzadeh, A., Yousefzadeh, H., Hossein, S.R.: Empirical and mathematical formulation of the shear behavior of rock joints. Eng. Geol. 164, 243–252 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Yang, S.Q., Huang, Y.H.: Particle flow study on strength and meso-mechanism of Brazilian splitting test for jointed rock mass. Acta Mech. Sin. 30, 547–558 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Barton, N., Choubey, V.: The shear strength of rock joints in theory and practice. Rock Mech. 10, 1–54 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Sterpi, D., Cividini, A.: A Physical and numerical investigation on the stability of shallow tunnels in strain softening media. Rock Mech. Rock Eng. 37, 277–298 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Li, Y.J., Zhang, D.L., Fang, Q., et al.: A physical and numerical investigation of the failure mechanism of weak rocks surrounding tunnels. Comput. Geotech. 61, 292–307 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Xu, X.N., Chen, Y.L., Li, S.W.: Study of shock landslide-Type geomechanical model test for consequent rock slope. In: Margottini, C. (ed.) Landslide Science and Practice, pp. 11–16. Springer, Berlin (2014)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Chen, G.Q., Huang, R.Q., Xu, Q., et al.: Progressive modelling of the gravity-induced landslide using the local dynamic strength reduction method. J. Mt. Sci. 10, 532–540 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Fumagalli, E.: Statically and Geomechanical Models. (Translated by P.N. Jang)., China Water Resources and Electric Power Press, Beijing (1979)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Meguid, M.A., Saada, O., Nunes, M.A., et al.: Physical modeling of tunnels in soft ground: a review. Tunn. Under Sp. Tech. 23, 185–198 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Chen, G.Q., Li, T.B., Zhang, G.F., et al.: Temperature effect of rock burst for hard rock in deep-buried tunnel. Nat. Hazards 72, 915–926 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Chinese Society of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics; Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Quan Jiang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Xiating Feng
    • 1
  • Lvbo Song
    • 1
  • Yahua Gong
    • 1
  • Hong Zheng
    • 1
  • Jie Cui
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Geomechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Institute of Rock and Soil MechanicsChinese Academy of SciencesWuhanChina

Personalised recommendations