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Acta Mechanica Sinica

, Volume 31, Issue 2, pp 248–258 | Cite as

Mechanokinetics of receptor–ligand interactions in cell adhesion

  • Ning Li
  • Shouqin Lü
  • Yan Zhang
  • Mian LongEmail author
Review Paper

Abstract

Receptor–ligand interactions in blood flow are crucial to initiate such biological processes as inflammatory cascade, platelet thrombosis, as well as tumor metastasis. To mediate cell adhesion, the interacting receptors and ligands must be anchored onto two apposing surfaces of two cells or a cell and a substratum, i.e., two-dimensional (2D) binding, which is different from the binding of a soluble ligand in fluid phase to a receptor, i.e., three-dimensional (3D) binding. While numerous works have been focused on 3D kinetics of receptor–ligand interactions in the immune system, 2D kinetics and its regulations have been less understood, since no theoretical framework or experimental assays were established until 1993. Not only does the molecular structure dominate 2D binding kinetics, but the shear force in blood flow also regulates cell adhesion mediated by interacting receptors and ligands. Here, we provide an overview of current progress in 2D binding and regulations, mainly from our group. Relevant issues of theoretical frameworks, experimental measurements, kinetic rates and binding affinities, and force regulations are discussed.

Graphical Abstract

A neutrophil undergoes capture and rolling (or tethering) on the endothelium through selectin–PSGL-1 bonds, followed by slow rolling and firm adhesion through the \({\upbeta }_{2}\)-integrins LFA-1 and Mac-1 as well as intraluminal crawling and transmigration through the endothelium to the inflamed tissue.

Keywords

Receptor–ligand interactions Selectins \({\upbeta }_{2}\) integrins 2D binding kinetics 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by Natural Science Foundation of China (grants 10042001, 10072071, 10128205, 30225027, 10332060, 30730032, 11072251, and 31110103918), National Key Basic Research Foundation of China (grants 2006CB910303 and 2011CB710904), National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (grants 2007AA02Z306 and 2011AA020109), Chinese Academy of Sciences (grants KJCX2-L02, KJCX2-SW-L06, 2005-1-16, KJCX2-YW-L08, Y2010030, XDA01030102, XDA04073801), as well as NIH Fogarty International Research Collaboration Award TW 05774-01. Simulations were conducted on the DeepComp 7000 supercomputer at the Computer Network Information Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

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Copyright information

© The Chinese Society of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics; Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Microgravity (National Microgravity Laboratory), Center of Biomechanics and Bioengineering, and Beijing Key Laboratory of Engineered Construction and Mechanobiology, Institute of MechanicsChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

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