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Acta Mechanica Sinica

, 27:461 | Cite as

Flow structures of gaseous jets injected into water for underwater propulsion

  • Jia-Ning Tang
  • Ning-Fei Wang
  • Wei ShyyEmail author
Research Paper

Abstract

Gaseous jets injected into water are typically found in underwater propulsion, and the flow is essentially unsteady and turbulent. Additionally, the high water-to-gas density ratio can result in complicated flow structures; hence measuring the flow structures numerically and experimentally remains a challenge. To investigate the performance of the underwater propulsion, this paper uses detailed Navier-Stokes flow computations to elucidate the gas-water interactions under the framework of the volume of fluid (VOF) model. Furthermore, these computations take the fluid compressibility, viscosity, and energy transfer into consideration. This paper compares the numerical results and experimental data, showing that phenomena including expansion, bulge, necking/breaking, and back-attack are highlighted in the jet process. The resulting analysis indicates that the pressure difference on the rear and front surfaces of the propulsion system can generate an additional thrust. The strong and oscillatory thrust of the underwater propulsion system is caused by the intermittent pulses of the back pressure and the nozzle exit pressure. As a result, the total thrust in underwater propulsion is not only determined by the nozzle geometry but also by the flow structures and associated pressure distributions.

Keywords

Gaseous jets Underwater propulsion High density ratio Gas-water interactions 

Nomenclature

Ae

Area of nozzle exit

As

Area of cross-section of propulsion system

At

Area of nozzle throat

ds

Diameter of cross-section of propulsion system

dt

Diameter of nozzle throat

D

Diameter of nozzle exit

Eg

Energy of gas

Ew

Energy of water

F

Thrust

hg

Enthalpy of gas

hw

Enthalpy of water

keff

Effective thermal conductivity, k eff = k + k t

kg

Thermal conductivity of gas

kt

Turbulent thermal conductivity

kw

Thermal conductivity of water

Mass flow rate

Ma

Mach number

p

Pressure

p*

Normalized pressure

p0

Stagnant pressure

p1

Atmosphere pressure

pa

Ambient pressure

pB

Back pressure

pe

Pressure at nozzle exit

pref

Reference pressure

Pr,g

Prandtl number of gas

Pr,w

Prandtl number of water

Re

Reynolds number

T

Temperature

U*

Normalized Axial-velocity

U

Reference velocity

ve

Normal velocity at nozzle exit

αg

Volume fraction of gas

αw

Volume fraction of water

γ

Ratio of specific heats of gas

µg

Dynamic viscosity of gas

µm

Dynamic viscosity of mixture

µw

Dynamic viscosity of water

ρg

Density of gas

ρl

Density of liquid

ρm

Density of mixture

ρref

Reference density

ρw

Density of water

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Copyright information

© The Chinese Society of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics; Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Aerospace EngineeringBeijing Institute of TechnologyBeijingChina
  2. 2.Department of Aerospace EngineeringUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringHong Kong University of Science and TechnologyKowloon, Hong KongChina

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