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Eosinophile Granulozyten

Physiologische und pathophysiologische Funktionen

Eosinophilic granulocytes

Physiological and pathophysiological functions

Zusammenfassung

Seit seiner Entdeckung im Jahr 1879 durch Paul Ehrlich fasziniert und inspiriert der eosinophile Granulozyt Ärzte wie Wissenschaftler. In den letzten Jahren ist mit der Verfügbarkeit von Interleukin-5-Blockern das Interesse noch weiter gestiegen. Während die Zelle bei physiologischen Prozessen keine Rolle spielt, kommt ihr im Rahmen bestimmter infektiöser oder immunologischer Prozesse eine zentrale Bedeutung zu. Einerseits ist der Eosinophile bei der angeborenen Immunantwort gegen bestimmte Pathogene beteiligt, insbesondere bei Parasitosen. Auf der anderen Seite induziert die Zelle bei anderen Erkrankungen über die Freisetzung basischer Granulaproteine und reaktiver Sauerstoffspezies eine lokale Entzündung mit Nekrose des infiltrierten Gewebes. Darüber hinaus sind Eosinophile an der lokalen Gewebehomöostase und an der Modulation erworbener Immunreaktionen über Bildung und Freisetzung von verschiedensten Lipidmediatoren, Chemokinen, Zytokinen und Wachstumsfaktoren beteiligt. Diese Übersicht stellt die Morphologie, Zellbestandteile, Oberflächenantigene und Effektormechanismen der Eosinophilen in Bezug zu ihrer pathogenetischen Bedeutung im Rahmen von Eosinophilen-assoziierten Erkrankungen dar.

Abstract

Ever since its discovery in 1879 by Paul Ehrlich the eosinophil has fascinated and inspired clinicians and scientists alike. In recent years, interest in eosinophils has dramatically increased with the availability of interleukin-5 blockers. Although eosinophils do not seem to play an essential role in physiological processes, their numbers are markedly raised in certain pathological conditions, such as certain infectious and immunological diseases. Functionally, eosinophils play a role in the innate host defence against pathogens, particularly parasites. On the other hand, the cells may damage both pathogens and host cells through the release of basic granule proteins and reactive oxygen species. In addition, eosinophils are involved in local tissue homeostasis and modulation of adaptive immune responses through the production and release of various lipid mediators, chemokines, cytokines, and growth factors. This review summarizes the cell morphology and components, surface antigens, as well as effector mechanisms of eosinophils with respect to their pathogenic significance in eosinophil-related diseases.

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Abbreviations

CCL:

CC-Chemokinligand

CCR:

CC-Chemokinrezeptor

CXCL:

CXC-Chemokinligand

CXCR:

CXC-Chemokinrezeptor

ECP:

„Eosinophil cationic protein“

EDN:

„Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin“

EE:

Eosinophile Ösophagitis

EGID:

Eosinophilenassoziierte gastrointestinale Erkrankung

EGPA:

Eosinophile Granulomatose mit Polyangiitis

EPO:

Eosinophile Peroxidase

GM-CSF:

„Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor“

IL:

Interleukin

MBP:

„Major basic protein“

PAF:

„Platelet-activating factor“

PG:

Prostaglandine

SCF:

„Stem cell factor“

TGF:

„Transforming growth factor“

TNF:

„Tumor necrosis factor“

Tx:

Thromboxan

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Correspondence to C. Kroegel.

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Interessenkonflikt

C. Kroegel, M. Foerster, A. Moeser, H. Slevogt und U. Costabel geben an, dass kein Interessenkonflikt besteht.

Dieser Beitrag beinhaltet keine von den Autoren durchgeführten Studien an Menschen oder Tieren.

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J. Schreiber, Magdeburg

C. Kroegel, Jena

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Kroegel, C., Foerster, M., Moeser, A. et al. Eosinophile Granulozyten. Pneumologe 15, 299–308 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10405-018-0202-x

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Schlüsselwörter

  • Eosinophile
  • Zellstrukturen
  • Zellbestandteile
  • Effektormechanismen
  • Eosinophile Granulaproteine

Keywords

  • Eosinophils
  • Cellular structures
  • Cell components
  • Effector mechanisms
  • Eosinophil granule proteins