, Volume 15, Issue 4, pp 777–791 | Cite as

Surveillance of Arboviruses in Primates and Sloths in the Atlantic Forest, Bahia, Brazil

  • L. S. CatenacciEmail author
  • M. Ferreira
  • L. C. Martins
  • K. M. De Vleeschouwer
  • C. R. Cassano
  • L. C. Oliveira
  • G. Canale
  • S. L. Deem
  • J. S. Tello
  • P. Parker
  • P. F. C. Vasconcelos
  • E. S. Travassos da Rosa
Original Contribution


From 2006 through 2014, we conducted seroepidemiological surveys on non-human primates and sloths to investigate the possible circulation of arboviruses in Bahia Atlantic Forest, Brazil. We collected a total of 196 samples from 103 Leontopithecus chrysomelas, 7 Sapajus xanthosternos, 22 Bradypus torquatus and 7 Bradypus variegatus. Serum samples were tested using neutralization test and hemagglutination inhibition test to detect total antibodies against 26 different arboviruses. The overall prevalence of arboviruses was 36.6% (51/139), with the genus Flavivirus having the highest prevalence (33.1%; 46/139), followed by Phlebovirus (5.0%; 7/139), Orthobunyavirus (4.3%; 6/139) and Alphavirus (0.7%; 1/139). Monotypic reactions suggest that the wild animals were exposed naturally to at least twelve arboviruses. Added results from the neutralization test, animals were exposed to thirteen arboviruses. Most of these viruses are maintained in transmission cycles independent of human hosts, although antibodies against dengue virus serotypes 1, 2 and 3 were found in this study. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting exposure to arboviruses in L. chrysomelas, S. xanthosternos and B. torquatus. Our results also highlight that the Southern Bahia Atlantic Forest has a variety of vertebrate hosts and potential vectors, which may support the emergence or re-emergence of arboviruses, including those pathogenic to humans.


Arbovirus Leontopithecus sp. Sapajus sp. Bradypus sp. Emerging infectious diseases Atlantic Forest 



The authors thank the important contributions of the Municipal and Bahia State Health Department and the colleagues from the Evandro Chagas Institute for assistance with the laboratory diagnostics and logistical support in the field. Additional thanks go to Project BioBrasil/Centre for Research and Conservation, ICMBio and the Bicho-da mata NGO for their logistical support and ICMBio for permits to conduct research in the Una Biological Reserve and Una Wildlife Refuge. We also thank the owners of the private areas (Almada, Santa Rita, Ribeiro, Ozawa, Manoel Rosa and São José, Ecoparque de Una, Bonfim) and the Zoobotanical Reserve Rehabilitation Center for permit to conduct the research. We also thank the sponsoring institutions that made this project possible: Saint Louis Zoo WildCare Institute (USA), The Wild Animal Fund, from the American Association of Zoological Veterinarians (USA), CNPq (Brazil), the Center for Research and Conservation of the Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp (Belgium), Lion Tamarins of Brazil Fund, National Lottery of Belgium, Primate Action Fund, Zoological Society of London, Conservação Internacional, Fundação o Boticário de Proteção a Natureza. The Flemish Ministry of Science (Belgium) provided structural support to the Center for Research and Conservation of the Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights

All applicable institutional and/or national guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.


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Copyright information

© EcoHealth Alliance 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. S. Catenacci
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 8
    Email author
  • M. Ferreira
    • 2
  • L. C. Martins
    • 2
  • K. M. De Vleeschouwer
    • 3
    • 4
  • C. R. Cassano
    • 5
  • L. C. Oliveira
    • 4
    • 6
  • G. Canale
    • 7
  • S. L. Deem
    • 8
    • 10
  • J. S. Tello
    • 9
  • P. Parker
    • 10
  • P. F. C. Vasconcelos
    • 2
  • E. S. Travassos da Rosa
    • 2
  1. 1.Campus Professora Cinobelina ElvasFederal University of Piaui StateBom JesusBrazil
  2. 2.Virology Graduate ProgramEvandro Chagas InstituteAnanindeuaBrazil
  3. 3.Centre for Research and ConservationRoyal Zoological Society of AntwerpAntwerpBelgium
  4. 4.Bicho do Mato Instituto de PesquisaBelo HorizonteBrazil
  5. 5.State University of Santa CruzIlhéusBrazil
  6. 6.Faculdade de Formação de ProfessoresState University of Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil
  7. 7.ICNHS/NEBAMFederal University of Mato Grosso, Campus SinopCuiabáBrazil
  8. 8.Saint Louis Zoo Institute for Conservation MedicineSaint LouisUSA
  9. 9.Center for Conservation and Sustainable DevelopmentMissouri Botanical GardenSt. LouisUSA
  10. 10.University of Missouri-St LouisSt. LouisUSA

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