Depression among adults with chronic hepatitis C on antiviral treatment in Port-Said, Egypt

  • Samar Mohamed Abbas
  • Hend Mikhail Salama
  • Hebatallah Nour-Eldein
Original Article



This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of depression among adults with chronic hepatitis C on antiviral treatment.

Subjects and methods

This was a cross-sectional descriptive and analytic study, conducted between January and August 2017, in two centers for hepatitis C virus treatment in Port Said governorate; one center is located in a fever hospital for non-insured persons, and the other is located in Eltadamon, which is a health insurance hospital for insured persons. It included adults with chronic hepatitis C virus infection attending the locations of the study by systematic random sampling of 288 patients. They filled out questionnaires of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), socioeconomic status, and medical history.


About one-third (29%) of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients had depression varying from mild in 16%, moderate in 6%, and severe depression in 7% of patients. Younger patients were more depressed (p = 0.009); also, females were more depressed than males (p < 0.001), unmarried patients more depressed than married patients (p = 0.014), illiterates more depressed than educated (p = 0.009), not working patients more depressed (p = 0.001), slum residents more depressed (p < 0.001), and finally lower socioeconomic status patients more depressed (p < 0.001). Increased duration of illness associated with depression (p = 0.02), and patients receiving three doses of treatment less depressed (p = 0.01).


Depression is a common problem in CHC patients; they require treatment with both antivirals and antidepressants, and patient continuation of antiviral treatment decreases the prevalence of depression. More education and improvement in socioeconomic status of CHC patients may reduce the prevalence of depression.


Depression Chronic hepatitis C Antiviral Hepatitis treatment Adults 



The authors thank all participants for their cooperation.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

The study protocol was approved by the Research and Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University. All procedures performed in the study were in accordance with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Samar Mohamed Abbas
    • 1
  • Hend Mikhail Salama
    • 1
  • Hebatallah Nour-Eldein
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of MedicineSuez Canal UniversityIsmailiaEgypt

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