Advanced-stage tongue and mouth floor cancer is related to tobacco and alcohol abuse
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Smoking and alcoholism are recognized factors associated with the prevalence of oral cancer. However, the role of these habits on the severity of lesions still needs to be elucidated.
To evaluate the prevalence of tongue and mouth floor cancer according to the clinical stage and how it correlates with alcoholism and smoking habits in Brazil from 2000 to 2010.
Data referring to 11,873 cases of tongue and mouth floor cancer were obtained from the Integrator Module of the Hospital Registry of Cancer. Internal inconsistencies (non-classified cases) and data with no relevant information were eliminated. The final sample value considered for statistical analysis was equal to 8417 cases. An analysis of frequency distribution and binary logistic regression modeling was performed, using a significance level of 5%.
The concomitant use of alcohol and tobacco (69%, n = 5808) and clinical stage grade IV (55.9%, n = 4703) were the most frequent findings. A higher prevalence of advanced lesions was observed in 2008 (PR = 1.715, 95% CI = 1.254–2.347, p < 0.01). The prevalence ratio of advanced tongue and mouth floor cancer (clinical stages III and IV) was observed to be significant for both smokers only (p < 0.01; PR = 1.460; 95% CI = 1.222–1.745) and for individuals who were both smokers and alcoholics (p < 0.05; RP = 2.279; 95% CI = 1.980–2.622).
Data from the 11-year registry suggest that smoking contributes significantly to the prevalence of advanced cases of tongue and mouth floor cancer. It is also implied that concomitant use of alcohol and tobacco increases the prevalence of advanced-stage oral cancer. Prospective cohort studies are still necessary to prove such relationships.
KeywordsMouth neoplasms Neoplasm staging Alcoholism Smoking
The authors declare the following contributions:
NVF Bezerra, AMR Cardoso, WWN Padilha and YW Cavalcanti conceptualized the study.
NVF Bezerra, KLF Leite, MMD Medeiros and ML Martins collected data.
AMR Cardoso, WWN Padilha, CFW Nonaka and YW Cavalcanti performed statistical analysis and interpreted data.
All authors contributed significantly to the writing of the manuscript and revised it critically for important the intellectual content.
All authors approved the final version of the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. No funding was received.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.
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