Spectral domain optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence findings in cytomegalovirus retinitis in HIV-infected patients
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To assess the usefulness of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) findings in cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis.
Observational case series.
Thirteen eyes of 11 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients with CMV retinitis underwent full ophthalmologic examinations, SD-OCT, and 4 eyes of 4 patients underwent FAF. FAF images included short-wavelength autofluorescence (SW-AF) and near-infrared autofluorescence (IR-AF). CMV retinitis was classified into proposed categories of acute, subacute, remission, and recurrent; the acute stage was further subdivided into initial, early, and late stages.
In the initial stage, vertical structural disruption of all retinal layers was observed by SD-OCT, and FAF showed hyperautofluorescence on SW-AF and hypoautofluorescence on IR-AF. In the early stage, SD-OCT showed significant retinal thickening; cells and debris from the retinal surface to the vitreous; enlarged vessels with/without thickened vessel walls; and highly complicated serous retinal detachment. In the late to subacute stage, features observed included rhegmatogenous retinal detachment with shrinking posterior hyaloid membrane and waving from the ellipsoid zone to the retinal pigment epithelium. In remission, FAF findings were hypoautofluorescence on SW-AF and hyperautofluorescence on IR-AF.
Although the number of examined eyes was limited, SD-OCT and FAF provide new information in various stages of CMV retinitis in patients with HIV infection that is not obtainable by conventional examination and which may be of great benefit when screening for the initial stage of CMV retinitis.
KeywordsCytomegalovirus retinitis Fundus autofluorescence Human Immunodeficiency Virus Spectral domain optical coherence tomography
This work was supported in part by a Grants-in-Aid for Research from the National Center for Global Health and Medicine (26A201). Professional medical English editing was provided by ThinkSCIENCE Inc., Tokyo, Japan.
Conflicts of Interest
S. Yashiro, None; T. Nishijima, None; Y. Yamamoto, Grant (Santen Pharmaceutical’s Founder); Y. Sekine, None; N. Y. -Hata, None; T. Iida, Grant (Bayer Yakuhin, Canon, Kowa, Nidek, Novartis Pharma, Santen Pharmaceutical), Lecture fees (Bayer Yakuhin, Novartis Pharma, Santen Pharmaceutical); S. Oka, None.
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