Food habits of three carnivores in a mosaic landscape of São Paulo state, Brazil

  • C. Giordano
  • M. C. Lyra-Jorge
  • R. A. Miotto
  • V. R. Pivello
Short Communication


São Paulo is the most developed state in Brazil, but despite intense land use changes, some mammal species still inhabit remnant fragments of native vegetation of the state. We used fecal analyses to investigate prey diversity, trophic niche breadth, and trophic niche overlap of pumas, ocelots, and maned wolves in protected and non-protected areas in São Paulo state. During 18 months, we inspected more than 10,000 km of roads and trails and collected 233 fecal samples. Maned wolves showed generalist food habit, ocelots were predominantly carnivores, and pumas were strict carnivores. The European hare, an exotic species which had not yet been reported in the study area, was identified in the feces of a puma. Trophic niche breadth was the lowest for maned wolves (BA = 0.339) and the highest for pumas (BA = 0.723). Trophic niche overlap was high between maned wolves and ocelots (Ojk = 0.765) and between pumas and ocelots (Ojk = 0.639). Significantly different diets of maned wolves and ocelots were observed between dry and rainy seasons. Our findings indicate that these three species may adapt their diets to the disturbed landscapes. This is the second study characterizing food habits of ocelots in Cerrado areas but the first considering a large number of samples.


Carnivorous diet Fragmented landscape Maned wolf Ocelot Prey diversity Puma Trophic niche 



We are grateful to CNPq, CAPES, and the Neotropical Grassland Conservancy for financial and logistic support.

Funding information

R.A. Miotto was supported by FAPESP (2011/13897-3).

Supplementary material

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Table S3 (DOCX 14 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Núcleo de Ciências AmbientaisUniversidade de Mogi das CruzesMogi das CruzesBrazil
  2. 2.Colégio Anglo Sorocaba–SorocabaSorocabaBrazil
  3. 3.Departamento de Ciências FlorestaisEscola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP)PiracicabaBrazil
  4. 4.Departamento de Ecologia, Instituto de BiociênciasUniversidade de São PauloSão PauloBrazil

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