Energy Analysis and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases of Pomegranate Production in Antalya Province of Turkey

  • Asaf Ozalp
  • Serpil Yilmaz
  • Can Ertekin
  • Ibrahim Yilmaz
Original Article


In this study, energy use patterns and the functional relationship between energy inputs and output for pomegranate production were investigated in Antalya province in Turkey. It further objective to identify greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in pomegranate production. Data were obtained from 75 farms using face-to-face interview method. The results indicated that 50,605.5 MJ ⋅ ha−1 of total energy input was required for 76,252.3 MG ⋅ ha−1 pomegranate energy output. 1.51 unit energy output was provided by using 1 unit energy input. 1 unit energy output and 1 kg pomegranate require 0.66 unit and 2.57 MJ energy input, respectively. The average CO2 emission amounts were also calculated to be 1.73 t CO2 per hectare and 88.1 kg CO2 per 1000 kg pomegranate production. Electricity, fertilizers and pesticides were the highest contributors to GHG emissions. Both total energy input usage and GHG emission amounts have been found to be decreasing as the farm size increases. Increasing scale of pomegranates orchards will not only increase energy efficiency and productivity but also decrease environmental pollution and damages. The regression analysis revealed that, excessive use of machinery and fuel inputs results in a decline in energy production in pomegranate.


Energy analysis Energy productivity Greenhouse gases Energy production function Pomegranate 

Energiebilanz und Treibhausgasemissionen bei der Produktion von Granatapfel in der Provinz Antalya, Türkei


Energiebilanz Energieproduktivität Treibhausgase Energieerzeugungsfunktion Granatapfel 



This study was supported by the Scientific Research Administration Unit of Akdeniz University.

Conflict of interest

A. Ozalp, S. Yilmaz, C. Ertekin and I. Yilmaz declare that they have no competing interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Deutschland, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Asaf Ozalp
    • 1
  • Serpil Yilmaz
    • 2
  • Can Ertekin
    • 3
  • Ibrahim Yilmaz
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of AgricultureAkdeniz UniversityAntalyaTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Basic Aquatic Science, Faculty of FisheriesAkdeniz UniversityAntalyaTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Farm Machinery and Technologies Engineering, Faculty of AgricultureAkdeniz UniversityAntalyaTurkey

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