, Volume 60, Issue 4, pp 281–287 | Cite as

Influence of Bagging on Color, Anthocyanin and Anthocyanin Biosynthetic Genes in Peel of Red Colored Mango Cv. ‘Lily’

  • G. R. Karanjalker
  • K. V. Ravishankar
  • K. S. Shivashankara
  • M. R. Dinesh
Original Article


Sunlight influences many morphological, biochemical and molecular changes in fruits and the most important is color change associated with the development of pigments. The exposure to sunlight influences the anthocyanin content of the fruit peel. With the aim to understand the influence of bagging of fruits on the mango peel color, anthocyanin and expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, an experiment was conducted by covering fruits of red colored cv. ‘Lily’ with muslin cloth. The observations were recorded for fruits of control (non-bagged) and fruits developing in shade. In bagged fruits, the color of peel changed towards lightness and yellowness. The reduction in anthocyanin was observed up to 17 times in bagged and shaded fruits. We also observed the down-regulation of all anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in fruits under bagged and shaded conditions. This study reports the influence of bagging and shade on anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and subsequent change in the color of fruit peel.


Mangifera indica L. Peel Bagging Color Total anthocyanin Gene expression 



Chalcone synthase


Chalcone isomerase


Flavanone 3‑hydroxylase


Flavonoid 3,5-hydroxylase


Anthocyanin synthase




UDP-glucose: flavonoid-O-glycosyl-transferase


Basic helix loop helix, MYB Transcription factor and WD-40R

Einfluss der Beschattung auf Farbe, Anthocyan und Anthocyan-Biosynthese-Gene der Fruchthaut bei rotschaligen Mangos der Sorte ‘Lily’


Mangifera indica L. Beschattung Farbe Gesamt-Anthocyan Genexpression Mango 



GRK thank University Grant Commission, New Delhi for providing Rajiv Gandhi National Fellowship (RGNF-ST-GOA-7140). Authors acknowledge the financial assistance from ICAR Network Project on Transgenics in Crops (NPTC): Functional genomics of plant type, maturity and fruit quality traits in Mango. Also, Dr. D. V. Sudhakar Rao (Principal Scientist, ICAR-IIHR, Bengaluru) is acknowledged for providing color reader.

Conflict of interest

G.R. Karanjalker, K.V. Ravishankar, K.S. Shivashankara and M.R. Dinesh declare that they have no competing interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Deutschland, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. R. Karanjalker
    • 1
    • 2
  • K. V. Ravishankar
    • 1
  • K. S. Shivashankara
    • 1
  • M. R. Dinesh
    • 1
  1. 1.ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR)BengaluruIndia
  2. 2.College of HorticultureUniversity of Horticultural Sciences, BagalkotBengaluruIndia

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