, Volume 81, Issue 4, pp 639–647 | Cite as

Chemically Deposited Sol–Gel Film on Porous TiO2 Nanotube Arrays as an Efficient and Unbreakable Solid-Phase Microextraction Fiber

  • Sirwan Mohammadiazar
  • Ali Roostaie
  • Maryam Maghsoodi
  • Mehdi Maham


In the present study, a novel technique was proposed to improve the performance of solid-phase microextraction fibers through the chemical deposition of polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene film on modified TiO2 nanotube arrays substrate. Two different techniques, including the self-assembled monolayer of 3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane and NaOH treatment, were examined to modify the surface of TiO2 nanotube arrays. The morphology of the prepared fibers was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The applicability of the novel fiber was evaluated through the headspace solid-phase microextraction of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as the model compounds followed by GC–MS determination. Influencing parameters on the extraction efficiency such as extraction time, temperature and salt content were studied and optimized. The thermal stability experiments demonstrated that the novel fiber was stable at 280 °C and reusable for more than 80 times without an obvious decrease in the extraction performance. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of PAHs in river water samples with good relative recoveries from 75.8 to 104.5% and the relative standard deviation values for all analytes were below 12%. Finally, the extraction performance of the prepared fiber was compared with those of commercially available fibers and similar previously reported fibers.


Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Sol–gel Solid-phase microextraction TiO2 nanotube array 



The authors are grateful to the Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj Branch, for their financial supports.


This study was funded by Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj Branch (grant number 1112627808).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Sirwan Mohammadiazar declares that he has no conflict of interest. Maryam Maghsoodi declares that she has no conflict of interest. Mehdi Maham declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Research involving human participants and/or animals

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in this study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sirwan Mohammadiazar
    • 1
  • Ali Roostaie
    • 2
  • Maryam Maghsoodi
    • 3
  • Mehdi Maham
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Sanandaj BranchIslamic Azad UniversitySanandajIran
  2. 2.Technology Management DepartmentPolice Sciences and Social Studies InstituteTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Chemistry, Science and Research BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran
  4. 4.Department of Chemistry, Aliabad Katoul BranchIslamic Azad UniversityAliabad KatoulIran

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