, Volume 81, Issue 2, pp 359–364 | Cite as

SPE/GC–MS Determination of 2-Pyrrolidone, N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone, and N-Ethyl-2-pyrrolidone in Liquid Pesticide Formulations

  • Hui Li
  • Zejun Jiang
  • Xiaolin Cao
  • Hang Su
  • Hua Shao
  • Fen Jin
  • Lufei Zheng
  • A. M. Abd El-Aty
  • Jing Wang
Short Communication


Pesticide adjuvants, chemicals with various toxicities, are added to pesticide formulations to improve their stability and efficacy. In the present study, an analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of the adjuvants, 2-pyrrolidone, N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone, and N-Ethyl-2-pyrrolidone, in liquid pesticide formulations. Samples were diluted with ethyl acetate, purified using Oasis HLB as solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges, and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) using the external standard method. SPE in interferences retention mode was used herein and key parameters were optimized. Moreover, the necessity for the purification step was evaluated through comparison with direct measurement of diluted samples with no cleanup procedure. SPE was deemed necessary to remove contaminants from targets in liquid pesticide formulations with satisfactory accuracy and precision. The developed and validated SPE/GC–MS method is simple, accurate, and efficient for the simultaneous determination of the three polar adjuvants in complex liquid pesticide formulations.

Graphical Abstract


GC–MS SPE Pesticide adjuvant 2-Pyrrolidone N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone N-Ethyl-2-pyrrolidone 



This work was supported by the Special Program for Basic Work of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2013FY110100), and the Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation Program of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS-ASTIP-2016-IQSTAP).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have declared no conflicts of interest.

Supplementary material

10337_2017_3435_MOESM1_ESM.docx (464 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 463 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hui Li
    • 1
  • Zejun Jiang
    • 1
  • Xiaolin Cao
    • 1
  • Hang Su
    • 1
  • Hua Shao
    • 1
  • Fen Jin
    • 1
  • Lufei Zheng
    • 1
  • A. M. Abd El-Aty
    • 2
    • 3
  • Jing Wang
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Quality Standard and Testing Technology for Agro-ProductsChinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Agro-Product Quality and Safety, Ministry of AgricultureBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineCairo UniversityGizaEgypt
  3. 3.Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary MedicineKonkuk UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea

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