3D true-phase polarity recovery with independent phase estimation using three-tier stacks based region growing (3D-TRIPS)

  • Haining Liu
  • Gregory J. Wilson
  • Niranjan Balu
  • Jeffrey H. Maki
  • Daniel S. Hippe
  • Wei Wu
  • Hiroko Watase
  • Jinnan Wang
  • Martin L. Gunn
  • Chun Yuan
Research Article



A postprocessing technique termed 3D true-phase polarity recovery with independent phase estimation using three-tier stacks based region growing (3D-TRIPS) was developed, which directly reconstructs phase-sensitive inversion-recovery images without acquisition of phase-reference images. The utility of this technique is demonstrated in myocardial late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging.

Materials and methods

A data structure with three tiers of stacks was used for 3D-TRIPS to directly achieve reliable region growing for successful background-phase estimation. Fifteen patients undergoing postgadolinium 3D phase-sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR) cardiac LGE magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were recruited, and 3D-TRIPS LGE reconstructions were compared with standard PSIR. Objective voxel-by-voxel comparison was performed. Additionally, blinded review by two radiologists compared scar visibility, clinical acceptability, voxel polarity error, or groups and blurring.


3D-TRIPS efficiently reconstructed postcontrast phase-sensitive myocardial LGE images. Objective analysis showed an average 95% voxel-by-voxel agreement between 3D-TRIPS and PSIR images. Blinded radiologist review demonstrated similar image quality between 3D-TRIPS and PSIR reconstruction.


3D-TRIPS provided similar image quality to PSIR for phase-sensitive myocardial LGE MRI reconstruction. 3D-TRIPS does not require acquisition of a reference image and can therefore be used to accelerate phase-sensitive LGE imaging.


Cardiac MRI Phase-sensitive imaging Late gadolinium enhancement Myocardial infarction Region-growing 



This study was supported in part by Grants from the National Institutes of Health R21-EB017514.

Author contributions

HL: Protocol/project development, data collection or management. GJW: Data collection or management, data analysis. NB: Protocol/project development, Data analysis. JHM: Protocol/project development, data analysis. DSH: Data analysis. HW: Data analysis. JW: Protocol/project development. Gunn: Data analysis. WW: Data analysis. CY: Protocol/project development, data collection or management, data analysis.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

D. Hippe has received grants from GE Healthcare and Philips Healthcare. N. Balu has received grants from Philips Healthcare. C. Yuan has received grants from Philips Healthcare and is a Member of Radiology Advisory Network of Philips Healthcare. The other authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Research involving human participants

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© ESMRMB 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BioengineeringUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  3. 3.Department of RadiologyUniversity of ColoradoAuroraUSA
  4. 4.Department of Radiology, Tongji HospitalHuazhong University of Science and TechnologyWuhanChina
  5. 5.Department of SurgeryUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  6. 6.Department of BioengineeringTsinghua UniversityBeijingChina

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