In vitro evaluation of flow patterns and turbulent kinetic energy in trans-catheter aortic valve prostheses

  • Daniel Giese
  • Kilian Weiss
  • Bettina Baeßler
  • Navid Madershahian
  • Yeong-Hoon Choi
  • David Maintz
  • Alexander C. Bunck
Research Article



The objective of the current work was to evaluate flow and turbulent kinetic energy in different transcatheter aortic valve implants using highly undersampled time-resolved multi-point 3-directional phase-contrast measurements (4D Flow MRI) in an in vitro setup.

Materials and methods

A pulsatile flow setup was used with a compliant tubing mimicking a stiff left ventricular outflow tract and ascending aorta. Five different implants were measured using a highly undersampled multi-point 4D Flow MRI sequence. Velocities and turbulent kinetic energy values were analysed and compared.


Strong variations of turbulent kinetic energy distributions between the valves were observed. Maximum turbulent kinetic energy values ranged from 100 to over 500 J/m3 while through-plane velocities were similar between all valves.


Highly accelerated 4D Flow MRI for the measurement of velocities and turbulent kinetic energy values allowed for the assessment of hemodynamic parameters in five different implant models. The presented setup, measurement protocol and analysis methods provides an efficient approach to compare different valve implants and could aid future novel valve designs.


Phase-contrast MRI TAVI 4D Flow MRI Turbulent kinetic energy TKE 



The authors would like to thank Herbert Metzner from the Department of Physical Chemistry of the University of Cologne for performing elasticity measurements. This work was supported by the Koeln Fortune Program/Faculty of Medicine, University of Cologne.

Author contributions

DG designed the study, developed the acquisition and reconstruction algorithms, collected and analysed the data and drafted and revised the manuscript. KW contributed to the study design, the data acquisition, reconstruction, analysis and manuscript draft. BB contributed to the study design and revised the manuscript. NM and H-CC procured the TAVIs and contributed to the in vitro setup, the manuscript preparation and revision. DM and AB contributed to the study design, the manuscript preparation, supervised the work and revised the manuscript. All authors read and approved the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Research involving human participants

No research involved human participants.

Informed consent

Not applicable.

Supplementary material

10334_2017_651_MOESM1_ESM.avi (2.4 mb)
Vid. 1 Time-resolved overlay of velocities in a 2-D coronal plane along with a 3-D rendering of TKE values of all TAVI valves 1 (AVI 2445 kb)
10334_2017_651_MOESM2_ESM.tif (1.3 mb)
Fig. 1s Image in systole of particles ejected at the level C3 of all TAVI valves (TIFF 1370 kb)
10334_2017_651_MOESM3_ESM.avi (3.6 mb)
Vid. 2 Time-resolved traces of particle ejected at level C3 of all TAVI valves (AVI 3732 kb)


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Copyright information

© ESMRMB 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of RadiologyUniversity Hospital of CologneCologneGermany
  2. 2.Philips Healthcare GermanyHamburgGermany
  3. 3.Department of Cardiothoracic SurgeryUniversity Hospital of CologneCologneGermany

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