Radial MRI with variable echo times: reducing the orientation dependency of susceptibility artifacts of an MR-safe guidewire

  • Katharina E. Schleicher
  • Michael Bock
  • Klaus Düring
  • Stefan Kroboth
  • Axel J. Krafft
Research Article



Guidewires are indispensable tools for intravascular MR-guided interventions. Recently, an MR-safe guidewire made from a glass-fiber/epoxy compound material with embedded iron particles was developed. The size of the induced susceptibility artifact, and thus the guidewire’s visibility, depends on its orientation against B 0. We present a radial acquisition scheme with variable echo times that aims to reduce the artifact’s orientation dependency.

Materials and methods

The radial acquisition scheme uses sine-squared modulated echo times depending on the physical direction of the spoke to balance the susceptibility artifact of the guidewire. The acquisition scheme was studied in simulations based on dipole fields and in phantom experiments for different orientations of the guidewire against B 0. The simulated and measured artifact widths were quantitatively compared.


Compared to acquisitions with non-variable echo times, the proposed acquisition scheme shows a reduced angular variability. For the two main orientations (i.e., parallel and perpendicular to B 0), the ratio of the artifact widths was reduced from about 2.2 (perpendicular vs. parallel) to about 1.2 with the variable echo time approach.


The reduction of the orientation dependency of the guidewire’s artifact via sine-squared varying echo times could be verified in simulations and measurements. The more balanced artifact allows for a better overall visibility of the guidewire.


Interventional MRI Intravascular guidewires Susceptibility artifacts Radial acquisition Variable echo time 



This work was supported by a Grant from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) under the Grant Number BO 3025/2-2 and by a research contract with MaRVis Medical GmbH. Parts of this study were presented as an E-poster (abstract number: 3582) at the 24th Annual Meeting of the ISMRM in Singapore, 2016.

Authors’ contribution

Katharina E. Schleicher: Project development, Data collection or management, Data analysis. Michael Bock: Project development, Data analysis. Klaus Düring: Project development. Stefan Kroboth: Data collection or management, Data analysis. Axel J. Krafft: Project development, Data collection or management, Data analysis.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Katharina E. Schleicher: No potential conflict of interest. Michael Bock: No potential conflict of interest. Klaus Düring: Shareholder and CEO of MaRVis Medical GmbH and MaRVis Interventional GmbH. Stefan Kroboth: No potential conflict of interest. Axel J. Krafft: No potential conflict of interest.

Ethical standards

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


  1. 1.
    Bock M, Wacker FK (2008) MR-guided intravascular interventions: techniques and applications. J Magn Reson Imaging 27:326–338CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Konings MK, Bartels LW, Smits HFM, Bakker CJG (2000) Heating around intravascular guidewires by resonating RF waves. J Magn Reson Imaging 12:79–85CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nitz WR, Oppelt A, Renz W, Manke C, Lenhart M, Link J (2001) On the heating of linear conductive structures as guide wires and catheters in interventional MRI. J Magn Reson Imaging 13:105–114CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wolska-Krawczyk M, Rube MA, Immel E, Melzer A, Buecker A (2013) Heating and safety of a new MR-compatible guidewire prototype versus a standard nitinol guidewire. Radiol Phys Technol 7:95–101CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ladd ME, Quick HH (2000) Reduction of resonant RF heating in intravascular catheters using coaxial chokes. Magn Reson Med 43:615–619CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Weiss S, Vernickel P, Schaeffter T, Schulz V, Gleich B (2005) Transmission line for improved RF safety of interventional devices. Magn Reson Med 54:182–189CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Vernickel P, Schulz V, Weiss S, Gleich B (2005) A safe transmission line for MRI. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 52:1094–1102CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Krafft A, Müller S, Umathum R, Semmler W, Bock M (2006) B1 field-insensitive transformers for RF-safe transmission lines. Magn Reson Mater Phy 19:257–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mekle R, Hofmann E, Scheffler K, Bilecen D (2006) A polymer-based MR-compatible guidewire: a study to explore new prospects for interventional peripheral magnetic resonance angiography (ipMRA). J Magn Reson Imaging 23:145–155CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Krueger S, Schmitz S, Weiss S, Wirtz D, Linssen M, Schade H, Kraemer N, Spuentrup E, Krombach G, Buecker A (2008) An MR guidewire based on micropultruded fiber-reinforced material. Magn Reson Med 60:1190–1196CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Krämer NA, Krüger S, Schmitz S, Linssen M, Schade H, Weiss S, Spüntrup E, Günther RW, Bücker A, Krombach GA (2009) Preclinical evaluation of a novel fiber compound MR guidewire in vivo. Invest Radiol 44:390–397CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Massmann A, Buecker A, Schneider GK (2017) Glass-fiber—based MR-safe guidewire for MR imaging—guided endovascular interventions: in vitro and preclinical in vivo feasibility study. Radiology. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2017152742 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Unterberg-Buchwald C, Ritter CO, Reupke V, Wilke RN, Stadelmann C, Steinmetz M, Schuster A, Hasenfuß G, Lotz J, Uecker M (2017) Targeted endomyocardial biopsy guided by real-time cardiovascular magnetic resonance. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 19:45. doi: 10.1186/s12968-017-0357-3 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Schenck JF (1996) The role of magnetic susceptibility in magnetic resonance imaging: MRI magnetic compatibility of the first and second kinds. Med Phys 23:815–850CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lüdeke KM, Röschmann P, Tischler R (1985) Susceptibility artefacts in NMR imaging. Magn Reson Imaging 3:329–343CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Müller-Bierl B, Graf H, Lauer U, Steidle G, Schick F (2004) Numerical modeling of needle tip artifacts in MR gradient echo imaging. Med Phys 31:579–587CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Müller-Bierl BM, Graf H, Pereira PL, Schick F (2006) Numerical simulations of intra-voxel dephasing effects and signal voids in gradient echo MR imaging using different sub-grid sizes. Magn Reson Mater Phy 19:88–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ladd ME, Erhart P, Debatin JF, Romanowski BJ, Boesiger P, McKinnon GC (1996) Biopsy needle susceptibility artifacts. Magn Reson Med 36:646–651CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    de Leeuw H, Seevinck PR, Bakker CJ (2013) Center-out radial sampling with off-resonant reconstruction for efficient and accurate localization of punctate and elongated paramagnetic structures. Magn Reson Med 69:1611–1622CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Magnetic moment of iron. Materials Design, Inc. Accessed 01 Feb 2016
  21. 21.
    Krafft AJ, Reiß S, Düring K, Bock M (2015) Variable echotimes in radial acquisitions to achieve a uniform artifact for passive MR guidewires. Proceedings of the ISMRM 23rd scientific meeting and exhibition, Toronto, Canada, abstract: 1662Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fessler JA, Sutton BP (2003) Nonuniform fast fourier transforms using min-max interpolation. IEEE Trans Signal Process 51:560–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kroboth S (2012) Fast Regularized Reconstruction for PatLoc MR Imaging using Total Generalized Variation and Graphics Cards [Master’s Thesis]. Graz University of Technology, GrazGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ESMRMB 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katharina E. Schleicher
    • 1
  • Michael Bock
    • 1
  • Klaus Düring
    • 2
  • Stefan Kroboth
    • 1
  • Axel J. Krafft
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Radiology, Medical Physics, Medical Center-University of Freiburg, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of FreiburgFreiburgGermany
  2. 2.MaRVis Interventional GmbHFrechenGermany

Personalised recommendations