Single-breath-hold 3-D CINE imaging of the left ventricle using Cartesian sampling

  • Jens Wetzl
  • Michaela Schmidt
  • François Pontana
  • Benjamin Longère
  • Felix Lugauer
  • Andreas Maier
  • Joachim Hornegger
  • Christoph Forman
Research Article



Our objectives were to evaluate a single-breath-hold approach for Cartesian 3-D CINE imaging of the left ventricle with a nearly isotropic resolution of \(1.9 \times 1.9 \times 2.5\,{\text {mm}^3}\) and a breath-hold duration of \(\sim \)19 s against a standard stack of 2-D CINE slices acquired in multiple breath-holds. Validation is performed with data sets from ten healthy volunteers.

Materials and methods

A Cartesian sampling pattern based on the spiral phyllotaxis and a compressed sensing reconstruction method are proposed to allow 3-D CINE imaging with high acceleration factors. The fully integrated reconstruction uses multiple graphics processing units to speed up the reconstruction. The 2-D CINE and 3-D CINE are compared based on ventricular function parameters, contrast-to-noise ratio and edge sharpness measurements.


Visual comparisons of corresponding short-axis slices of 2-D and 3-D CINE show an excellent match, while 3-D CINE also allows reformatting to other orientations. Ventricular function parameters do not significantly differ from values based on 2-D CINE imaging. Reconstruction times are below 4 min.


We demonstrate single-breath-hold 3-D CINE imaging in volunteers and three example patient cases, which features fast reconstruction and allows reformatting to arbitrary orientations.


3-D CINE imaging Compressed sensing Ventricular function 



The authors gratefully acknowledge funding of the Erlangen Graduate School in Advanced Optical Technologies (SAOT) by the German Research Foundation (DFG) in the framework of the German excellence initiative.

Author contributions

JW: protocol and project development, data collection and analysis. MS: protocol development, data collection and analysis. FP: data collection and analysis. BL: data collection and analysis. FL: data collection and management. AM: project development. JH: project development. CF: protocol and project development, data collection and analysis

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Jens Wetzl and Felix Lugauer receive project funding from Siemens Healthcare GmbH. Michaela Schmidt and Christoph Forman are employees of Siemens Healthcare GmbH. François Pontana receives research support from Siemens Healthcare GmbH.

Ethical standards

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© ESMRMB 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pattern Recognition Lab, Department of Computer ScienceFriedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-NürnbergErlangenGermany
  2. 2.Erlangen Graduate School in Advanced Optical Technologies (SAOT)Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-NürnbergErlangenGermany
  3. 3.Siemens Healthcare GmbHErlangenGermany
  4. 4.Department of Cardiovascular ImagingCHU Lille and Univ. LilleLilleFrance

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