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Environmental Chemistry Letters

, Volume 16, Issue 2, pp 389–400 | Cite as

Nanoscale materials as sorbents for nitrate and phosphate removal from water

  • T. K. M. Prashantha Kumar
  • Trivene R. Mandlimath
  • P. Sangeetha
  • S. K. Revathi
  • S. K. Ashok Kumar
Review

Abstract

Excessive nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) release into run-off waters from human activities is a major cause of eutrophication. Several techniques are available to remove N and P-containing pollutants, such as chemical precipitation, biological treatment, membrane processes, electrolytic treatment, ion-exchange and adsorption. In order to remove low concentration levels of nitrate and phosphate, adsorption is a cost-effective solution. In this review, we present a list of nanoscale adsorbents such as zero-valent metal, metal oxides/metal hydroxides, and carbon-based materials. We discuss their adsorption capacities, isotherms, kinetics and mechanisms.

Keywords

Eutrophication Nanomaterials Nitrate Phosphate Composite materials 

Abbreviations

RO

Reverse osmosis

WHO

World health organization

USEPA

US environmental protection agency

EPA

Environmental protection agency

nZVI

Zero-valent iron

EDTA

Ethylenediamine tetracetic acid

MZVI

Micro-ZVI

La-ZFA

Lanthanum hydroxide-zeolite

C-cloth

Carbon cloth

OMM

Ordered mesoporous materials’

SBA

Santa Barbara amorphous

G-nZVI

Graphene-supported nanoscale zero-valent iron

CNT

Carbon nanotube

HZO

Nano-hydrous zirconium oxide

ppm

Parts per million

IEP

Isoelectric point

Notes

Acknowledgements

Authors are thankful to the administration of VIT University, Vellore, India, for providing infrastructures to write this article and carry out other research.

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, School of Advanced SciencesVIT UniversityVelloreIndia
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryNandi Institute of Technology and Management SciencesBangaloreIndia
  3. 3.Department of ChemistryKPR Institute of Science and TechnologyArasur, CoimbatoreIndia

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