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Environmental Chemistry Letters

, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 211–237 | Cite as

Toxicity, degradation and analysis of the herbicide atrazine

  • Simranjeet Singh
  • Vijay Kumar
  • Arun Chauhan
  • Shivika Datta
  • Abdul Basit Wani
  • Nasib Singh
  • Joginder Singh
Review

Abstract

Excessive use of pesticides and herbicides is a major environmental and health concern worldwide. Atrazine, a synthetic triazine herbicide commonly used to control grassy and broadleaf weeds in crops, is a major pollutant of soil and water ecosystems. Atrazine modifies the growth, enzymatic processes and photosynthesis in plants. Atrazine exerts mutagenicity, genotoxicity, defective cell division, erroneous lipid synthesis and hormonal imbalance in aquatic fauna and nontarget animals. It has threatened the sustainability of agricultural soils due to detrimental effects on resident soil microbial communities. The detection of atrazine in soil and reservoir sites is usually made by IR spectroscopy, ELISA, HPLC, UPLC, LC–MS and GC–MS techniques. HPLC/LC–MS and GC–MS techniques are considered the most effective tools, having detection limits up to ppb levels in different matrices. Biodegradation of atrazine by microbial species is increasingly being recognized as an eco-friendly, economically feasible and sustainable bioremediation strategy. This review presents the toxicity, analytical techniques, abiotic degradation and microbial metabolism of atrazine.

Keywords

Atrazine Herbicide Toxicity Microbial degradation Monitoring 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and animal rights

This study does not involve work

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© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyLovely Professional UniversityPhagwaraIndia
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryLovely Professional UniversityPhagwaraIndia
  3. 3.Department of ZoologyLovely Professional UniversityPhagwaraIndia
  4. 4.Department of MicrobiologyEternal UniversityBaru SahibIndia
  5. 5.Regional Ayurveda Research Institute for Drug DevelopmentGwaliorIndia

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