Encapsulation of bioactive compounds using nanoemulsions
- 190 Downloads
Roughly one-third of the food produced in the world for human consumption every year, approximately 1.3 billion tonnes, gets lost or wasted, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). There is therefore an urgent need for new methods to preserve food. Encapsulation using nanoemulsions is a powerful technique for the protection of food-grade ingredients including vitamins, lipids, antioxidants and antimicrobial agents. In general, nanoemulsion systems demonstrate superior characteristics over conventional emulsions. This is due to their smaller droplet size, transparent optical properties, higher physical stability against droplet destabilization factors and improved bioavailability of the entrapped active ingredients. In general, nanoemulsions have been prepared with different sizes of droplets. However, a droplet size higher than 200 nm is generally preferred for food applications. Here we review nanoemulsion compositions, types of active ingredients, applications in different types of food systems, toxicological and safety aspects, and future directions.
KeywordsNanoemulsion Phytochemicals Toxicity Bioactives
The authors would like to thank the Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), Department of Science and Technology, Government of India for the financial support through a research grant (YSS/2015/000546) to Dr. Preetam Sarkar.
- Aboalnaja KO, Yaghmoor S, Kumosani TA, McClements DJ (2016) Utilization of nanoemulsions to enhance bioactivity of pharmaceuticals, supplements, and nutraceuticals: nanoemulsion delivery systems and nanoemulsion excipient systems. Expert Opin Drug Deliv 13:1327–1336. doi: 10.1517/17425247.2016.1162154 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Chávarri M, Marañón I, Ares R, Ibáñez FC, Marzo F, del Carmen Villarán M (2010) Microencapsulation of a probiotic and prebiotic in alginate-chitosan capsules improves survival in simulated gastro-intestinal conditions. Int J Food Microbiol 142:185–189. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2010.06.022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- González MJ, Medina I, Maldonado OS, Lucas R, Morales JC (2015) Antioxidant activity of alkyl gallates and glycosyl alkyl gallates in fish oil in water emulsions: relevance of their surface active properties and of the type of emulsifier. Food Chem 183:190–196. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.03.035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lohith Kumar D (2017) Designing and characterization of emulsion-based matrices for the encapsulation of bioactive oils using polysaccharides. Food Process Engineering, National Institute of Technology Rourkela, RourkelaGoogle Scholar
- Otoni CG, Pontes SF, Medeiros EA, Soares NdF (2014) Edible films from methylcellulose and nanoemulsions of clove bud (syzygium aromaticum) and oregano (origanum vulgare) essential oils as shelf life extenders for sliced bread. J Agric Food Chem 62:5214–5219. doi: 10.1021/jf501055f CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Simion V, Stan D, Constantinescu CA, Deleanu M, Dragan E, Tucureanu MM, Gan AM, Butoi E, Constantin A, Manduteanu I, Simionescu M, Calin M (2016) Conjugation of curcumin-loaded lipid nanoemulsions with cell-penetrating peptides increases their cellular uptake and enhances the anti-inflammatory effects in endothelial cells. J Pharm Pharmacol 68:195–207. doi: 10.1111/jphp.12513 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tønnesen HH (2002) Solubility, chemical and photochemical stability of curcumin in surfactant solutions. Studies of curcumin and curcuminoids, xxviii. Pharmazie 57:820–824Google Scholar
- Wulff-Pérez M, Torcello-Gómez A, Gálvez-Ruíz M, Martín-Rodríguez A (2009) Stability of emulsions for parenteral feeding: preparation and characterization of o/w nanoemulsions with natural oils and pluronic f68 as surfactant. Food Hydrocolloids 23:1096–1102. doi: 10.1016/j.foodhyd.2008.09.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zambrano-Zaragoza M, Mercado-Silva E, Gutiérrez-Cortez E, Cornejo-Villegas M, Quintanar-Guerrero D (2014a) The effect of nano-coatings with α-tocopherol and xanthan gum on shelf-life and browning index of fresh-cut “red delicious” apples. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 22:188–196. doi: 10.1016/j.ifset.2013.09.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zambrano-Zaragoza ML, Gutiérrez-Cortez E, Del Real A, González-Reza RM, Galindo-Pérez MJ, Quintanar-Guerrero D (2014b) Fresh-cut red delicious apples coating using tocopherol/mucilage nanoemulsion: effect of coating on polyphenol oxidase and pectin methylesterase activities. Food Res Int 62:974–983. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2014.05.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zou L, Zheng B, Zhang R, Zhang Z, Liu W, Liu C, Xiao H, McClements DJ (2016) Food matrix effects on nutraceutical bioavailability: Impact of protein on curcumin bioaccessibility and transformation in nanoemulsion delivery systems and excipient nanoemulsions. Food Biophys. doi: 10.1007/s11483-016-9425-8 Google Scholar