A real-time cycle slip repair method using the multi-epoch geometry-based model

Abstract

Unrepaired cycle slips in carrier phase measurements will result in re-initializing integer ambiguities, during which positioning accuracy will be compromised. However, the issue of cycle slip fixing has yet to be completely solved, which impedes the realization of continuous high-precision positioning, especially in real-time precise point positioning applications. Traditional cycle slip (detection and) repair methods only use adjacent epochs to estimate cycle slips in real-time processing. Research indicates that using multiple epochs in the time-differencing model of cycle slip estimation could significantly improve cycle slip repair in real-time processing. A multi-epoch geometry-based cycle slip repair method is introduced, and it can also be implemented in real-time processing. A comparative study, including the theoretical model strength and real repairing rates for static and kinematic datasets, is performed under identical settings. The result demonstrates that a considerable number of the cycle slips unrepaired by the existing methods can be fixed by using the enhanced new method. In a low sampling rate static experiment, the average repair rates of the cycle slips unrepaired by the single-epoch geometry-based method and multi-epoch geometry-free method can be improved from 98.2% and 37.6% respectively to 99.3% by the new method using 4 epochs. In kinematic experiments, significant improvement is observed in shipborne, land-based, and airborne experiments using the new method compared with the existing methods.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10

Data Availability

The datasets of the IGS stations can be accessed via ftp://igs.org/pub/. The datasets generated and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

References

  1. Baarda W (1968) A testing procedure for use in geodetic networks. Publications on geodesy, new series 2, vol 5. Netherlands Geodetic Commission, Delft

    Google Scholar 

  2. Banville S, Langley RB (2009) Improving real-time kinematic PPP with instantaneous cycle-slip correction. Proc. ION GNSS 2009, Institute of Navigation, Savannah, USA, 22–25 September, 2470–2478

  3. Banville S, Langley RB (2013) Mitigating the impact of ionospheric cycle slips in GNSS observations. J Geodesy 87(2):179–193

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Blewitt G (1990) An automatic editing algorithm for GPS data. Geophys Res Lett 17(3):199–202

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Cai C, Liu Z, Xia P, Dai W (2013) Cycle slip detection and repair for undifferenced GPS observations under high ionospheric activity. GPS Solut 17(2):247–260

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Fujita S, Saito S, Yoshihara T (2013) Cycle slip detection and correction methods with time-differenced model for single frequency GNSS applications. Trans Inst Syst Control Inf Eng 26(1):8–15

    Google Scholar 

  7. Hatch R (1983) The synergism of GPS code and carrier phase measurements. In: International geodetic symposium on satellite Doppler positioning, 3rd, Las Cruces, New Mexico State University, pp 1213–1231

  8. Li B, Liu T, Nie L, Qin Y (2019a) Single-frequency GNSS cycle slip estimation with positional polynomial constraint. J Geodesy 93(9):1781–1803

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Li B, Qin Y, Liu T (2019b) Geometry-based cycle slip and data gap repair for multi-GNSS and multi-frequency observations. J Geod 93(3):399–417

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Li B, Qin Y, Li Z, Lou L (2016) Undifferenced cycle slip estimation of triple-frequency BeiDou signals with ionosphere prediction. Mar Geod 39(5):348–365

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Li B, Verhagen S, Teunissen PJG (2014) Robustness of GNSS integer ambiguity resolution in the presence of atmospheric biases. GPS Solut 18(2):283–296

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Li J, Yang Y, Xu J, He H, Guo H (2015) GNSS multi-carrier fast partial ambiguity resolution strategy tested with real BDS/GPS dual- and triple-frequency observations. GPS Solut 19(1):5–13

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Li P, Jiang X, Zhang X, Ge M, Schuh H (2019c) Kalman-filter-based undifferenced cycle slip estimation in real-time precise point positioning. GPS Solut 23(4):99

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Li P, Zhang X (2015) Precise point positioning with partial ambiguity fixing. Sensors 15(6):13627–13643

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Li T, Melachroinos S (2019) An enhanced cycle slip repair algorithm for real-time multi-GNSS, multi-frequency data processing. GPS Solut 23(1):1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Li T, Wang J (2014) Analysis of the upper bounds for the integer ambiguity validation statistics. GPS Solut 18(1):85–94

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Liu Z (2011) A new automated cycle slip detection and repair method for a single dual-frequency GPS receiver. J Geod 85(3):171–183

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Melbourne WG (1985) The case for ranging in GPS-based geodetic systems. In: Proceedings of the first international symposium on precise positioning with the Global Positioning System, Rockville, pp 373–386

  19. Teunissen PJG (1990) Quality control in integrated navigation systems. IEEE Aerosp Electron Syst Mag 5(7):35–41

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Teunissen PJG, De Jonge PJ, Tiberius CCJM (1995) The LAMBDA method for fast GPS surveying. In: Proceedings of the international symposium GPS technology applications, Bucharest, Romania, , pp 203–210

  21. Teunissen PJG, Odijk D (1997) Ambiguity dilution of precision: definition, properties and application. In: Proceedings ION GPS1997. Kansas City, pp 891–899

  22. Verhagen S, Li B, Teunissen PJG (2013) Ps-LAMBDA: ambiguity success rate evaluation software for interferometric applications. Comput Geosci 54:361–376

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Wang J, Feng Y (2013) Reliability of partial ambiguity fixing with multiple GNSS constellations. J Geodesy 87(1):1–14

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Wang J, Stewart M, Tsakiri M (1998) A discrimination test procedure for ambiguity resolution on-the-fly. J Geodesy 72(11):644–653

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Welch G, Bishop G (1995) An introduction to the Kalman filter. Technical Report 95-041, Department of Computer Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

  26. Wübbena G (1985) Software developments for geodetic positioning with GPS using TI-4100 code and carrier measurements. In: Proceedings of 1st international symposium on precise positioning with global positioning system, Rockville, USA, April 15–19, pp 403–412

  27. Yang Y, He H, Xu G (2001) Adaptively robust filtering for kinematic geodetic positioning. J Geod 75(2–3):109–116

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Zangeneh-Nejad F, Amiri-Simkooei AR, Sharifi MA, Asgari J (2017) Cycle slip detection and repair of undifferenced single-frequency GPS carrier phase observations. GPS Solut 21(4):1593–1603

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Zhang X, Li P (2016) Benefits of the third frequency signal on cycle slip correction. GPS Solut 20(3):451–460

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Zhang X, Li X (2012) Instantaneous re-initialization in real-time kinematic PPP with cycle slip fixing. GPS Solut 16(3):315–327

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Zhao Q, Sun B, Dai Z, Hu Z, Shi C, Liu J (2015) Real-time detection and repair of cycle slips in triple-frequency GNSS measurements. GPS Solut 19(3):381–391

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank two anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments which helped to improve the manuscript. We would also like to thank Dr. Xiaowen Luo for providing the kinematic dataset, and the IGS station providers are also acknowledged.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Wenhao Zhang.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Zhang, W., Wang, J. A real-time cycle slip repair method using the multi-epoch geometry-based model. GPS Solut 25, 60 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10291-021-01098-y

Download citation

Keywords

  • GNSS
  • Cycle slip repair
  • Precise point positioning
  • Real-time processing