GPS Solutions

, 22:52 | Cite as

Model comparison for GLONASS RTK with low-cost receivers

  • Simon Banville
  • Paul Collins
  • François Lahaye
Original Article


GLONASS ambiguity resolution in differential real-time kinematic (RTK) processing is affected by inter-frequency phase biases (IFPBs). Previous studies empirically determined that IFPBs are linearly dependent on the frequency channel number and calibration values have been derived to mitigate these biases for geodetic receivers. The corresponding IFPB-constrained model is currently the de facto approach in RTK, but the growing market of GNSS receivers, and especially low-cost receivers, makes calibration and proper handling of metadata a complex endeavor. Since IFPBs originate from timing offsets occurring between the carrier phase and the code measurements, we confirm other studies that show that IFPBs are not exactly linearly dependent on the frequency channel number, but rather linearly dependent on the channel wavelength, which calls for a modification in the GLONASS functional model. As an alternative to calibration, we revisit a calibration-free method for GLONASS ambiguity resolution and provide new insights into its applicability. A practical experiment illustrates that the calibration-free approach can offer better ambiguity fixing performance when the uncertainty on the IFPB parameter is large, unless partial ambiguity resolution is performed.


Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) GLONASS Inter-frequency biases Ambiguity resolution 



The authors would like to acknowledge the Geodetic Research Laboratory at UNB for sharing GNSS data from their continuously operating receivers. The initiative of Peter F. de Bakker to openly share his u-blox data is greatly appreciated. The constructive comments of an anonymous reviewer and the editor contributed in improving the original manuscript. This paper is published under the auspices of the NRCan Earth Sciences Sector as contribution number 20170171.


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Copyright information

© Crown 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Simon Banville
    • 1
  • Paul Collins
    • 1
  • François Lahaye
    • 1
  1. 1.Canadian Geodetic SurveyNatural Resources Canada (NRCan)OttawaCanada

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