Advertisement

GPS Solutions

, 22:41 | Cite as

A virtual receiver concept and its application to curved aircraft-landing procedures and advanced LEO positioning

  • Franziska Kube
  • Christian Bischof
  • Peter Alpers
  • Christoph Wallat
  • Steffen Schön
Original Article

Abstract

Kinematic positioning of highly dynamic platforms by a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) often suffers from fast-changing satellite visibility and signal obstruction. This is especially true for curved landing approaches of aircrafts or low earth orbit (LEO) satellites. In order to improve this situation, we present a mathematical concept that combines GNSS observations of multiple optimally installed antenna–receiver pairs mounted on a single rigid platform into one enhanced positioning solution. We call this concept “Virtual Receiver” as the position of the final solution can be chosen arbitrarily on the rigid platform. The location and orientation of the antennas are selected in such a way that their combined antenna field of view is enlarged with respect to each single, contributing antenna, thus improving the navigation performance. It will be shown that the concept can be applied for code-only navigation as well as for static and kinematic positioning with PPP. Using real data of a highly dynamic flight experiment, the performance of the virtual receiver positioning solution is compared against a single antenna positioning solution. We found that the satellite availability and the precision of the virtual receiver positioning solution significantly outperform the positioning solution of a co-located single antenna. The 95% error bound is reduced by up to 25%. The integrity is assessed by means of the internal reliability and the Stanford diagram, where a better or equally good integrity monitoring availability is found for the virtual receiver with respect to the single antenna. In particular, the vertical receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM) availability percentage is remarkably high, being 89.4% for this highly dynamic flight. This methodology for single-frequency code-based positioning is extended to precise point positioning (PPP) and applied for a static experiment and LEO precise orbit determination. Thus, the virtual receiver concept is an interesting possibility to improve the navigation performance parameters.

Keywords

GNSS landing approach Curved approach Virtual receiver LEO 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The investigations were funded in the framework of the research program “Bürgernahes Flugzeug” and “Bürgernahes Flugzeug Nachwuchsfond” by the Government of Lower Saxony in Germany (research funding scheme VWZN2499, VWZN2551, and VWZN2634). This is gratefully acknowledged by the authors. Special thanks are offered to Thomas Feuerle and Mark Bitter (IFF, TU Braunschweig) and Robert Geister (DLR-FL, German Aerospace Center) for their support. The PPP-related parts of the work were funded by DFG in the framework of the Collaborative Research Center SFB 1128geo-Q. The comments of the anonymous reviewers helped to improve the manuscript.

References

  1. Ardaens J-S, D’Amico S, Sommer J (2014) GPS navigation system for challenging close-proximity formation-flight. In: Proceedings of international symposium on space flight dynamics, Laurel, pp 1–15Google Scholar
  2. Baarda W (1968) A testing procedure for use in geodetic networks, vol 2(5). Netherlands Geodetic Commission, Publications on Geodesy, New Series, DelftGoogle Scholar
  3. Bischof C, Schön S (2017) Vibration detection with 100 Hz GPS PVAT during a dynamic flight. Adv Space Res 59(11):2779–2793.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2016.08.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bitter M, Feuerle T, von Wulfen B, Steen M, Hecker P (2010) Testbed for dual-constellation GBAS concepts. In: Proceedings of IEEE/ION PLANS, Institute of Navigation, Indian Wells/Palm Springs, California, USA, 4–6 May, pp 680–687Google Scholar
  5. Case K, Kruizinga G, Wu S-C (2010) GRACE level 1B data product user handbook. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, PasadenaGoogle Scholar
  6. Conley R, Cosentino R, Hegarty C, Kaplan ED, Leva JL, de Haag MU, Van Dyke K (2006) Performance of stand-alone GPS. In: Hegarty CJ, Kaplan ED (eds) Understanding GPS, principles and applications, 3rd edn. Artech House, Boston, pp 301–378Google Scholar
  7. Enge P (1999) Local area augmentation of GPS for the precision approach of aircraft. Proc IEEE 87(1):111–132.  https://doi.org/10.1109/5.736345 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Feuerle T, Stanisak M, Saito S, Yoshihara T, Lipp A (2016) GBAS interoperability trials and multi-constellation/multi-frequency ground mockup evaluation. In: Proceedings of SESAR, innovation days, EUROCONTROL, pp 1–8Google Scholar
  9. Hanses C (2014) A safety concept paving the way toward segmented independent parallel approaches. IEEE Aerosp Electron Syst Mag 29(5):34–39.  https://doi.org/10.1109/MAES.2014.130108 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hofmann-Wellenhof B, Lichtenegger H, Wasle E (2008) GNSS—global navigation satellite systems. Springer, WienGoogle Scholar
  11. Hopfield HS (1969) Two-quartic tropospheric refractivity profile for correcting satellite data. J Geophys Res 74(18):4487–4499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. ICAO/SARPS (2006) Annex 10 to the convention on international civil aviation: aeronautical telecommunication, 6th edn. ICAO/SARPS, MontrealGoogle Scholar
  13. Klobuchar JA (1987) Ionospheric time-delay algorithm for single-frequency GPS users. IEEE Trans Aerosp Electron Syst AES 23:325–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kube F, Schön S, Feuerle T (2011) Virtual receiver to enhance GNSS-based curved landing approaches. In: Proceedings of ION GNSS 2011, Institute of Navigation, Portland, Oregon, USA, 19–23 Sept, pp 536–545Google Scholar
  15. Kube F, Schön S, Feuerle T (2012a) GNSS-based curved landing approaches with a virtual receiver. In: Proceedings of IEEE/ION PLANS, Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, USA, 23–26 April, pp 188–192.  https://doi.org/10.1109/plans.2012.6236880
  16. Kube F, Schön S, Feuerle T (2012b) Improved navigation performance with a virtual receiver. In: Proceedings of ESA NAVITEC, ESTEC Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 5–7 Dec, pp 1–7.  https://doi.org/10.1109/navitec.2012.6423083
  17. Montenbruck O, Markgraf M, Turner P, Engler W, Schmitt G (2001) GPS tracking of sounding rockets—a European perspective. In: Proceedings of ESA NAVITEC, ESTEC Noordwijk, The Netherlands, pp 1–8Google Scholar
  18. Nair S, Bartone C (2004) Multiple antenna GPS configuration for enhanced performance. In: Proceedings of ION AM, Institute of Navigation, Dayton, Ohio, USA, 7–9 June, pp 188–199Google Scholar
  19. RTCA (2008) DO-253C. Minimum operational performance standards for GPS local area augmentation system airborne equipment. RTCM, ArlingtonGoogle Scholar
  20. Salzmann M (1991) MDB: a design tool for integrated navigation systems. Bull géodésique 65(2):109–115.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-3102-8_20 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Satkunanathan L, Murphy T (1998) Satellite-based guidance for precision approach and landing of commercial aircraft. GPS Solut 2(1):21–26.  https://doi.org/10.1007/PL00000023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Schön S, Pham HK, Kersten T, Leute J, Bauch A (2016) Potential of GPS common clock single-differences for deformation monitoring. J Appl Geod 10(1):45–52.  https://doi.org/10.1515/jag-2015-0029 Google Scholar
  23. Tseng T-P, Zhang K, Hwang C, Hugentobler U, Wang C-S, Choy S, Li Y-S (2014) Assessing antenna field of view and receiver clocks of COSMIC and GRACE satellites: lessons for COSMIC-2. GPS Solut 18(2):219–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Walter T, Hansen A, Enge P (1999) Validation of the WAAS MOPS integrity equation. In: Proceedings of ION AM, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, 27–30 June, pp 217–226Google Scholar
  25. Wycoff E, Gao GX (2014) A Python software platform for cooperatively tracking multiple GPS receivers. In: Proceedings of ION GNSS, Tampa, Florida, USA, 8–12 Sept, pp 1417–1425Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Franziska Kube
    • 1
  • Christian Bischof
    • 1
  • Peter Alpers
    • 1
  • Christoph Wallat
    • 1
  • Steffen Schön
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für ErdmessungHannoverGermany

Personalised recommendations