Table 5 Variable definitions and descriptive figures

From: How to combine high sunk costs of exporting and low export survival

Variable Definition Mean SD
Core versus periphery
Firm total export \( x_{f..} = \sum\nolimits_{p}^{{P_{f} }} {\sum\nolimits_{c}^{{C_{f} }} {x_{fpc} } } \), where P f and C f is the total number of products (defined by CN codes at 8-digit level) firm f export and the total number of destinations firm f export to   
Firm export of product f \( x_{fp.} = \sum\nolimits_{c}^{{C_{f} }} {x_{fpc} } \)   
Firm export to destination c \( x_{f.c} = \sum\nolimits_{p}^{{P_{f} }} {x_{fpc} } \)   
Relative unimportance of an exported product =(x fp./x f..)−1 168,962 7,721,183
Relative unimportance of an export destination =(x f.c /x f..)−1 168,962 9,841,822
Relative unimportance of an export flow =(x fpc /x f..)−1 1,632,487 4.9e+07
Relative distance to core market \( =\left( {d_{c} /\sum\nolimits_{c}^{{C_{f} }} {(x_{f.c} /x_{f..} )} d_{c} } \right), \) \({\tilde Y}_{{i},{t-j}}=\left( {Y_{{i},{t-j}}\prod\nolimits_{k}^{j-1} ({1}-{Y_{{i},{t-k}}}) } \right)\) where d c is the distance to destination c 2.14 2.21
Firm and product characteristics
TFP Multilateral index defined as in Aw et al. (2003) 1.68 8.89
Firm size Number of employees 433 1140
Owns foreign firm 1 if the firm owns foreign firms, 0 otherwise 0.49 0.50
Foreign owner 1 if the firm is owned by foreign firm, 0 otherwise 0.28 0.45
Second try 1 if the firm has exported the same product to the same market once before, 0 otherwise 0.14 0.35
Third try 1 if the firm has exported the same product to the same market twice before, 0 otherwise 0.02 0.13
Fourth try 1 if the firm has exported the same product to the same market three times before, 0 otherwise 0.001 0.03
Market characteristics
GDP Destination GDP (from the CEPII database) 778,078 1,963,406
Distance Distance from Sweden (from the CEPII database) 1,888 2,839
To RTA 1 if the destination is in the same regional trade agreement (RTA), 0 otherwise 0.84 0.36
To ACP 1 if the destination country is offered preferential market access to the EU under the fourth Lomé Convention or Cotonou Agreement as an African, Caribbean or Pacific (ACP) country, 0 otherwise 0.01 0.10
To GSP 1 if the destination country is offered preferential market access to the EU under the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP), 0 otherwise 0.08 0.27
  1. All data stem from Statistics Sweden if nothing else is mentioned