Spatiotemporal Free-Form Registration Method Assisted by a Minimum Spanning Tree During Discontinuous Transformations


The sliding motion along the boundaries of discontinuous regions has been actively studied in B-spline free-form deformation framework. This study focusses on the sliding motion for a velocity field-based 3D+t registration. The discontinuity of the tangent direction guides the deformation of the object region, and a separate control of two regions provides a better registration accuracy. The sliding motion under the velocity field-based transformation is conducted under the \(\alpha\)-Rényi entropy estimator using a minimum spanning tree (MST) topology. Moreover, a new topology changing method of the MST is proposed. The topology change is performed as follows: inserting random noise, constructing the MST, and removing random noise while preserving a local connection consistency of the MST. This random noise process (RNP) prevents the \(\alpha\)-Rényi entropy-based registration from degrading in sliding motion, because the RNP creates a small disturbance around special locations. Experiments were performed using two publicly available datasets: the DIR-Lab dataset, which consists of 4D pulmonary computed tomography (CT) images, and a benchmarking framework dataset for cardiac 3D ultrasound. For the 4D pulmonary CT images, RNP produced a significantly improved result for the original MST with sliding motion (p<0.05). For the cardiac 3D ultrasound dataset, only a discontinuity-based registration indicated activity of the RNP. In contrast, the single MST without sliding motion did not show any improvement. These experiments proved the effectiveness of the RNP for sliding motion.

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Correspondence to Deukhee Lee.

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Bae, J.P., Yoon, S., Vania, M. et al. Spatiotemporal Free-Form Registration Method Assisted by a Minimum Spanning Tree During Discontinuous Transformations. J Digit Imaging 34, 190–203 (2021).

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  • Discontinuous transformation
  • Minimum spanning tree
  • Free-form deformation
  • B-spline