Journal of Plant Research

, Volume 130, Issue 3, pp 571–585 | Cite as

Synthesis and degradation of long-chain base phosphates affect fumonisin B1-induced cell death in Arabidopsis thaliana

  • Daiki Yanagawa
  • Toshiki Ishikawa
  • Hiroyuki Imai
Regular Paper


Fumonisin B1 (FB1), an inducer of cell death, disrupts sphingolipid metabolism; large accumulations of de novo synthesized free long-chain bases (LCBs) are observed. However, it remains unclear whether tolerance to FB1 toxicity in plants is connected with preventing the accumulation of free LCBs through their phosphorylation. Here a workflow for the extraction, detection and quantification of LCB phosphates (LCBPs) in Arabidopsis thaliana was developed. We studied the effect of expression of genes for three enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of LCBPs, LCB kinase (LCBK1), LCBP phosphatase (SPP1) and lyase (DPL1) on FB1-induced cell death. As expected, large accumulations of saturated free LCBs, dihydrosphingosine and phytosphingosine, were observed in the FB1-treated leaves. On the other hand, a high level of sphingenine phosphate was found in the FB1-treated leaves even though free sphingenine was found in low amounts in these leaves. In comparison of WT and spp1 plants, the LCBP/LCB ratio is likely to be correlated with the degree of FB1-induced cell death determined by trypan blue staining. The FB1-treated leaves in dpl1 plants showed severe cell death and the elevation of free LCBs and LCBPs. LCBK1-OX and -KD plants showed resistance and sensitivity to FB1, respectively, whereas free LCB and LCBP levels in FB1-treated LCBK1-OX and -KD plants were moderately different to those in FB1-treated WT plants. Overall, the findings described here suggest that LCBP/LCB homeostasis is an important topic that participates in the tolerance of plant cells to FB1.


Fumonisin B1 Long-chain base kinase Long-chain base phosphates LC-MS/MS Sphingolipid catabolism 



Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S




LCBP lyase






Sphinganine (dihydrosphingosine)


Sphinganine (dihydrosphingosine)-1-phosphate


E-4-sphingenine (sphingosine)


E-4-sphingenine (sphingosine)-1-phosphate










Electrospray ionization


Fumonisin B1




Glycosyl inositolphosphoceramide


High-performance liquid chromatography


Hypersensitive response


Liquid chromatography


Long-chain base


Long-chain base 1-phosphate


LCB kinase


Multiple reaction monitoring


Tandem mass spectrometry




Reactive oxygen intermediate


LCBP phosphatase


4-hydroxy-sphinganine (phytosphingosine)


4-hydroxy-sphinganine (phytosphingosine)-1-phosphate










Wild type



We are grateful to Prof. Ikuko Nishimura (Konan University) for helpful advice on cell death data.

Compliance with ethical standards

Sources of funding

Parts of this work were supported by Special Ordinary Expense Subsidies for Private Universities from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of Japan. This research was also supported in part by the Strategic Research Foundation Grant-aided Project for Private Universities from MEXT of Japan.

Supplementary material

10265_2017_923_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (1.1 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 1167 KB)


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Copyright information

© The Botanical Society of Japan and Springer Japan 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daiki Yanagawa
    • 1
    • 2
  • Toshiki Ishikawa
    • 3
  • Hiroyuki Imai
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Biology, Graduate School of Natural ScienceKonan UniversityKobeJapan
  2. 2.The Institute for Integrative NeurobiologyKonan UniversityKobeJapan
  3. 3.Graduate School of Science and EngineeringSaitama UniversitySaitamaJapan

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