The role of self-efficacy for self-regulated learning, achievement goals, and engagement in academic cheating

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Abstract

This study examined the relationships between motivational beliefs, defined as self-efficacy for self-regulated learning and achievement goals, engagement and academic cheating in the context of learning biology. Gender differences across these variables were also examined and both active and second-party types of cheating were included. Based on the hierarchical model of achievement motivation, we hypothesized that achievement goals and engagement would play a mediating role between self-efficacy for self-regulated learning and academic cheating. Participants were 283 high school students from Croatia. Data were collected using (1) the Self-Efficacy for Self-Regulated Learning Scale, (2) the Achievement Goals Scale (subscales: mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, performance-avoidance, work-avoidance), (3) the Engagement in Learning Biology Scale (subscales: behavioural, cognitive, and emotional engagement), and (4) the Academic Cheating Scale (subscales: active and second-party cheating). The results demonstrated that girls exhibited higher self-efficacy for self-regulated learning, mastery achievement goals, and engagement, while boys exhibited higher work-avoidance goals. No gender differences were found in academic cheating. Mediational analysis revealed that behavioral engagement was a mediator between self-efficacy for self-regulated learning and active cheating. The findings of the present study demonstrate the importance of motivation and engagement in understanding academic cheating and in preventing this unethical behavior.

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Figure 1.
Figure 2.

Change history

  • 09 December 2019

    The two figures in this article were unfortunately printed in the wrong order due to an error at Springer’s offices.

Notes

  1. 1.

    Multigroup analysis was used to test gender differences in regression paths between girls and boys. Model in which regression paths were freely estimated had equally good fit to our data as model in which regression paths were constrained (∆χ2 = 25.37, ∆df = 19, p = .15). Therefore, the relationships between variables did not differ between girls and boys.

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Vanja Putarek

Her current themes of research are mostly related to metacognition and motivation in education. She participated in research projects, which were aimed at examining the relationships between motivational beliefs (subjective task value, self-efficacy, self-efficacy in self-regulated learning) and their outcomes (engagement, grit, achievement, academic cheating, academic achievement) at elementary and high school level, but also at the university level. Her PhD thesis is focused on the role of the metacognition in biased mathematical problem solving, as well as the instruction methods that could decrease these biases.

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Putarek, V., Rovan, D., & Vlahović-Štetić, V. (2016). Odnos uključenosti u učenje fizike s ciljevima postignuća, subjektivnom vrijednosti i zavisnim samopoštovanjem [The Relationship Between Engagement in Physics, Achievement Goals, Subjective Values and Self- Worth Contingencies]. Društvena istraživanja, 25(1), 107–129.

Modić Stanke, K., & Putarek, V. (2016). Odrednice interesa studenata za društveno korisno učenje [Determinants of students' interest in service learning. In M. Orel (Ed.), International Conference EDUvision 2016 "Modern Approaches to Teaching the Coming Generations" (pp. 1105–1117). Ljubljana: EDUVISION.

Putarek, V., Kozina, M., & Vlahović-Štetić, V. (2017). Predictors and outcomes of test anxiety. In: K. A. Moore & P. Buchwald (Eds.), Stress and anxiety - coping and resilience (pp. 115–126). Berlin: Logos Verlag Berlin GmbH.

Putarek, V. (2018). Pregled teorijskih okvira i suvremenih pristupa za poticanje konceptualnog i proceduralnog znanja u matematici [An Overview of Theoretical Frameworks and Contemporary Approaches for Facilitating Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge in Mathematics]. Psihologijske teme, 27(3), 453–479.

Putarek, V., & Vlahović-Štetić, V. (2019). Metacognitive feelings, conflict detection and illusion of linearity. Psychological Topis, 28(1), 171–192. doi: https://doi.org/10.31820/pt.28.1.91

Nina Pavlin-Bernardić

Nina Pavlin-Bernardić is associate professor at the University of Zagreb, Department of Psychology. Her PhD thesis was entitled “Mathematical problem solving strategies: testing childen's strategy choices and discoveries model”. Currently she is focused on motivation in education. She was a principal investigator of projects that were aimed at examining the relationships between motivational beliefs (subjective task value, self-efficacy, self-efficacy in self-regulated learning) and their outcomes (engagement, grit, achievement, academic cheating, academic achievement) at elementary and high school level, but also at the university level.

List of relevant articles in the field of psychology of education:

Pavlin-Bernardić, N., Ravić, S., & Matić, I. P. (2016). The application of artificial neural networks in predicting children's giftedness. Suvremena psihologija, 19(1), 49–60.

Pavlin-Bernardić, N., Rovan, D., & Marušić, A. (2017). Students' motivation for learning mathematics in mathematical and language-program gymnasiums. Croatian Journal of Education, 19(1), 93–115.

Pavlin-Bernardić, N., Rovan, D., & Pavlović, J. (2017). Academic cheating in mathematics classes: A motivational perspective. Ethics & Behavior, 27(6), 486–501.

Rovan, D., Šimić, K., & Pavlin-Bernardić, N. (2017). Odnos motivacijskih i epistemičkih uvjerenja s uključenosti učenika u učenje kemije [The relationship between epistemic and motivational beliefs and student engagement in chemistry]. Psihologijske teme, 26(3), 649–673.

Pavlin-Bernardić, N., Putarek, V., Rovan, D., Petričević, E., & Vlahović-Štetić, V. (2017). Students' engagement in learning physics: A subject-specific approach. In I. Burić (Ed.), 20th Psychology Days in Zadar: Book of selected proceedings (pp. 193–203). Zadar: University of Zadar.

The role of self-efficacy for self-regulated learning, achievement goals, and engagement in academic cheating

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Putarek, V., Pavlin-Bernardić, N. The role of self-efficacy for self-regulated learning, achievement goals, and engagement in academic cheating. Eur J Psychol Educ 35, 647–671 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10212-019-00443-7

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Keywords

  • Academic cheating
  • Achievement goals
  • Self-efficacy for self-regulated learning
  • Engagement
  • Biology