European Journal of Psychology of Education

, Volume 33, Issue 3, pp 467–487 | Cite as

Dialogical PISA: correct answers are all alike, every incorrect answer is incorrect in its own way

  • Aleksandar Baucal
  • Dragica Pavlović Babić
  • Smiljana Jošić


Why do students give incorrect answers in PISA? What are the reasons for giving incorrect answers? Do all incorrect answers reflect only the lack of competence or might even a competent child make a mistake? The aim of this article is to contribute to a better understanding of these issues. In the current investigation, we selected six students who responded incorrectly to one PISA question in mathematics or science when they solved it individually. Then, we analyzed their understanding of the PISA task and their reasoning about it through a dialogical problem solving in triads to identify why they made an incorrect answer. Moreover, we tried to determine how the shared peer interaction might change the understanding and reasoning of the child and enable her/him to solve the task. The results of this study illustrate the differences between incorrect answers reflecting lack of competence and those incorrect answers, which appear for some other reasons. Based on the dialogical problem solving approach, we analyzed these two types of incorrect answers and the reasoning trajectories behind them.


PISA International large-scale assessment Collaborative learning Peer interaction Dialogical problem solving 



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Copyright information

© Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada, Lisboa, Portugal and Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of PhilosophyUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia
  2. 2.Institute for Educational ResearchBelgradeSerbia

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